THE INFLUENCE OF SATELLITE TELEVISION ON NIGERIAN CULTURE: AN EVALUATION OF IDOMA CULTURE

Image result for idoma culture

BY

ONOJA, BENEDICT PAUL

BSU/SS/COM/13/22892

Being a Project Submitted to the Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Social Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor of Science (B. Sc Hons) Degree in Mass Communication.

APRIL, 2018

DEDICATION

I dedicate this project work to my late father, Sir Onoja John Ukpoji (A.K.A. Onoja Agoo!) for his last advice to me on my education, which served as strength to me in my academic pursuits against all challenges.

Also, to my late elder brothers, Late Mr Boniface Onoja and Late Mr Sylvester Onoja for their passions for education, these inculcated the act of seriousness in me towards my studies. Your demises remain evergreen in my heart. May your souls continue to rest in the peace of the Lord. Amen

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My deepest gratitude to God, the giver of knowledge for His benevolence and mindfulness of me throughout my undergraduate studies, especially this project work. His provision, protection, wisdom, knowledge and understanding-mind are inexhaustible in my life. Thank you Lord Jesus Christ; I will live to praise you and confess you as my Lord and Saviour all the days of my life for whom you are and for what you have done for me. My special thanks to my spiritual father in the Lord, Dr Ernest Odogba, the General Overseer of Covenant Life Ministry Inc. for his assistance to me spiritually, morally and otherwise.

My immeasurable thanks to my supervisor, Mrs Tina Tsafa for her meticulous supervision, which added great values to this project work and made it to stand out among equals. Thank you, Ma; may God bless you and your family in all your endeavours. I wish to see you at the zenith of your career.

My special appreciation to other lecturers in the Department of Mass Communication, Benue State University, Makurdi, namely: Dr Rodney Ciboh (Head, Department of Mass Communication), Professor Gerald Igyor, Professor Michael A. Kombol, Dr Gabriel B. Ugande, Dr Andrew O. Ijwo, Reverend Father Vitalis Torwel (PhD), Late Dr Samson Ademagba Sambe, Dr Tine, Vaungwa, Dr Daniel Bo, Dr Caleb T. Chile, Dr Benjamin E. Ogbu, Dr Daniel N. Chile, Dr Shimenenge Atime, Dr Maria Onyilo A., Dr Kelvin Alom, Dr Grace I. Anweh, Dr Ate Andrew, Dr Thomas Kajo, Mrs Patience Achakpa-Ikyo, Mr John Otor Ogi, Mrs Martha Msoo Hile, Mrs Matilda Sase and Rachael Nyiwo, for modelling my mind and making me qualified for my first degree.

My ever indebtedness to my beloved mother, Mrs Monica Onoja for her prayers, cares and patience. Thank you mummy for investing in me and ensuring that I have formal education to the university level. I am forever grateful to you for your financial, moral and otherwise supports. May God protect and preserve you for me in good health so that you live longer to taste the fruit of your labour. My special thanks to my uncles: Mr Benedict Ukpoji, Mr Sylvanus Ukpoji and Mr Livinus Ukpoji, Chief Abah John and Dr Igah Omale. In same measure to my aunts: Maria Okpe, Virginia Ugwu among others, for their countless supports financially, morally and otherwise. Similarly, my special thanks to my elder brothers: Mr Raphael Onoja, Mr James Onoja and Mr Goddey Onoja. Equally, my special thanks to my Elder sisters: Mrs Monica Odoh, Mrs Agnes Ede, Miss Cecilia Onoja, Mrs Helen Godwin, Mrs Maria, Ogbole Paul Sunday, as well as my younger sisters: Miss Regina Onoja and Miss Agnes Onoja. Thanks to my cousins: Comfort Itodo, Ogbole Benpaul, Abah Okpe Livinus, Emmanuel Livinus; my nephew, John Odoh and other family relations, for their supports to me morally, financially and spiritually throughout the project work.

My special thanks to Mr Ogbole, Paul Sunday, Dr Cletus Egbo and Dr Christopher Ebute, for their financial supports, moral advice and otherwise, which ensure my success in gaining admission to the university and completion.

My special thanks to Professor Armstrong Matiu Adejo and Professor John E. Agaba of the Department of History, Benue State University, Makurdi and Akioyamen Joseph, for their kind advice and assistance.

My special thanks to my friends: Igoche Antonia, Abah Onuh Sunday, Oko Richard, Ijiga Sunday Ijiga, Matthew Eloyi, Atungwu Matthew Ochefu, Kathrine Attayi, Blessing Deme, Hycienth Adoyi, Nyiter Fanen, Titus Terdoo Nyafa, Tyoule, Selumun Emmanuel, Omeche Mercy Paul, Faith Geoffrey, Goodness Shimave and Ameh, Justice Ameh, for their supports and friendships, which in one way or the other added values to the success of this project. My special thanks to my course mate, Peter Otor, for proofreading my project work, which as well added values to its success. My special thanks also to all the authors and respondents whose works were cited and the filling of the study research questionnaires respectively. Thanks to all my course mates.

May God bless all of you.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i

Certification – – – – – – – – – – ii

Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii

Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – iv

Table of content – – – – – – – – – vi

List of Tables – – – – – – – – – viii

Abstract – – – – – – – – – – ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION- – – – – – – 1

1.1 Background to the Study- – – – – – – – – 1

1.2 Statement of Problem- – – – – – – – – 4

1.3 Objectives of Study – – – – – – – – 5

1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 6

1.5 Significance of Study – – – – – – – – 6

1.6 Scope of Study – – – – – – – – – 8

1.7 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – – – 8

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE – – 11

2.1 Review of Concepts – – – – – – – – 11

2.1.1 Satellite Television – – – – – – – – 11

2.1.2 History of Satellite Television – – – – – – – 12

2.1.3 The Uses and Advantages of Satellite Television – – – – 15

2.1.4 Disadvantages of Satellite Television – – – – – – 19

2.1.5 Culture – – – – – – – – – 22

2.1.6 Some Unique Idoma Cultural Heritages to be Preserved – – – 22

2.2.1 Review of Related Literature and Empirical Studies – – – 27

2.2.2 The Influence of Satellite Television on the Audience – – – 27

2.2.3 The Role of Satellite Television in Educating Nigerians – – – 38

2.2.4 How to use Satellites Television for Education – – – – 39

2.2.5 The Role of Parents and the Government in Proper uses of Satellite Television 42

2.2.6 Review of Empirical Studies – – – – – – 44

2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 48

2.3.1 Cultural Imperialism Theory – – – – – – – 48

2.3.2 Technological Determinism Theory – – – – – – 49

2.3.3 Social Learning Theory – – – – – – – 50

2.3.4 Chapter Summary – – – – – – – 51

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – – – 53

3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – – 53

3.1.1 Survey Research Design – – – – – – – 53

3.2 The Population of the Study – – – – – – – 54

3.3 Sample Size Determination – – – – – – – 54

3.4 Sampling Techniques and Procedures – – – – – – 56

3.5 Research Instruments and Administration – – – – – 58

3.6 Sources of Data Collection – – – – – – – 59

3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 59

CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation and Analyses – – – – 60

4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – – 60

4.2 Answering of Research Questions – – – – – – 73

4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – – 79

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations – – – 83

5.1 Summary of Finding – – – – – – – – 83

5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 84

5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 84

Bibliographies – – – – – – – – – 88

Appendix 1 – – – – – – – – – – 92

Appendix 2 – – – – – – – – – – 93

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.4 – – – – – – – – – – 57

Table One – – – – – – – – – – 60

Table Two – – – – – – – – – – 61

Table Three – – – – – – – – – – 61

Table Four – – – – – – – – – – 62

Table Five – – – – – – – – – – 63

Table Six – – – – – – – – – – 63

Table Seven – – – – – – – – – – 63

Table Eight – – – – – – – – – – 64

Table Nine – – – – – – – – – – 65

Table Ten – – – – – – – – – – 65

Table Eleven – – – – – – – – – – 66

Table Twelve – – – – – – – – – – 67

Table Thirteen – – – – – – – – – – 67

Table Fourteen - – – – – – – – – – 68

Table Fifteen – – – – – – – – – – 69

Table Sixteen – – – – – – – – – – 69

Table Seventeen – – – – – – – – – – 70

Table Eighteen – – – – – – – – – – 71

Table Nineteen- – – – – – – – – – 72

Table Twenty – – – – – – – – – – 72

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Influence of Satellite Television on Nigerian Culture: An Evaluation of Idoma Culture. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma: to assess the positive and negative influences of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma people, to identify the particular cultural value(s) of Idoma that is (are) influenced by Satellite television and to examine how satellite television could be used to promote Idoma cultural values. The study adopted survey research design and the findings revealed that satellite television has the fortress and no mean influences, which are positive or negative on people depending on the programmes, which they are exposed. It shapes the Idoma cultural values positively by teaching them about health, human right, love and care, science and technology among others. However, it was also revealed that it has negative influences on the Idoma people on the aspect of abandoning of Idoma Language, music, dance, traditional marriage among others for Western culture. It also revealed that Idoma culture could be promoted on Sat TV through the production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations, Idoma satellite television channel and educational programmes on Idoma language and other aspect of Idoma culture. The study concluded that satellite television holds a great fortress in human and material resource developments and its advantages and disadvantages depend on how the Idoma people and other users use it. This study therefore emphatically recommended amongst others: the establishment of Idoma satellite television channel, promotion of Idoma language through interaction in Idoma language among the Idoma people, establishment of Idoma Day celebration worldwide to discuss the progress and promote the unity of Idoma people and a call to support Idoma filmmakers, artists and artistes to produce Idoma documentaries, exhibition and songs respectively.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Television as a medium of communication has been a very influential medium of mass communication, due to its audiovisual broadcasting. Scholars of communication, especially those in broadcasting always research into the influence of television on the society. James et al. (2017) opine that “the efforts of scholars provide useful information to individuals, groups and organizations that employ this medium on how best to use it.” There is no doubt that television has a lot of influences on the viewers and shapes their economic and social-cultural lives. Hence, the influence of television on attitudes and behaviour of people in the society has attracted diverse views supported by different researches.

Technological advancements have left the Third World countries with the challenges of cultural imperialism. Schiller (1973) says “Western nations dominate the media around the world, which in return have powerful effects on the Third World countries and therefore, destroying their native cultures” In a similar view, Ugande (2017, p 49) opines that “Cultural Imperialism is the domination of the cultures of developing nations by the culture of the West.” Satellite television makes television more effective; however, it has both negatives and positive effects on society.

Satellite television can confidently be said to have brought a lot of Western civilization and culture into Africa, Nigeria and Idoma in particular. Traditional African cultural practices have paved way for foreign ways of doing things. Satellite television has the capacity to connect people and places, culture and cultures, developed and underdeveloped societies, event and events, economy and economies, religion and religions, war ravaging areas and the peaceful areas etc. Television is the most powerful medium of international communication that has the capacity to connect people and places in the urban and remote areas by providing pictures. The culture of the most developed area of any given society can be catapulted to the most remote society and verse versa. Events far away from us can be “live” at our finger tip through satellite television. Duru-Ford, (2002), opines that, “global entertainment companies shape understanding and dreams of ordinary citizens wherever they live.”

The economies of the countries of the world have received global integration through satellite television and other media of international communication. Similarly, Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016) opine that, “the mass media inform, entertain, sensitize, persuade, mobilize and educate people about happenings in their environment and in other faraway places for complete human development.” Similarly, different religions have been practised all over the world as projected through satellite television, which shows the video and the audio of the practices.

Despite the enormous benefits of satellite television, there are negative aspects of it, especially on cultural diffusion and integration. Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016) opine that, “the media are involved in the teaching of norms and values, which may not all enhance good social development.” Some Nigerian youths and Idoma youths in particular have adapted to the alien culture from the Western society. This has left us with many devastating effects, which cut across preference of western language, dressing, music, dance, conflict resolution mechanism, marriage rite, religion, lack of respect for elders, violence, rape, kidnapping, arm robbery, infidelity in marriage, speech mannerism among others. These and more are implanted into our society through satellite television and other media of international communication. As argued by Mimiko (2010) in Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016, p 41),the social fabric was completely devastated and a new culture of violence was implanted.” The way Nigerian youths speak English and abandon their mother tongue is embarrassing!

Abraham McLuhan asserted that the world would be a “global village”. Today, with the high level of technological advancements, it is no long a vision but a reality. Satellite television system of broadcasting is one of the developments some decades ago that still remains relevant in our contemporary society, which has brought events from thousands of miles to us at our finger tip. In television’s early years, North American and European viewers had to wait hours, if not days, for tapes to be shipped across the Atlantic in order to watch footages (filmed sequence showing events) from the other side of the ocean to the other. All that changed 55 years ago after the launch of the first telecommunications satellite (Telstar) on July 23, 1962. For Telstar to be more effective, Keystone & Getty Images in Christopher (2012) says that “Telstar 2 was launched in May 1963, and other Telstar satellites followed it into orbit and that is the monument to the birth of satellite communications”

Satellite television continues to improve and today it has spread to every nook and cranny of the world at affordable rates. Satellite Broadcasting & Communications Association (2017) asserts that, “Small-dish DBS systems have become a reality, creating a huge new market for satellite broadcast services. Favourable legislations have removed many of the former obstacles of dish ownership, and the industry has seen the delivery of interactive TV services.”

Consequently, the access to Direct Broadcasting Satellites (DBS) has become relatively common in Nigeria. Today we have Free-to-Air direct broadcasting and this makes the accessibility easier at low or no price. Nevertheless, these technological advancements have left the Third World countries with the challenges of cultural imperialism as the Nigerian youths and Idoma youths in particular now see everything Western in the preference to their indigenous culture(s).

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

The era of local and analogue television broadcasting in Nigeria will soon be totally over. This implies that access to television broadcasting would no longer be in the analogue system but digital. The International Telecoms Union (ITU) and Nigeria Broadcasting Commission (NBC) have given June, 2017 as deadline for total switch-over from analogue broadcasting to digital broadcasting (ThisDay Newspaper, June 22, 2017). Even though Nigeria was not able to meet the deadline of June, 2017, many major cities in Nigeria have been switched-over to digital broadcasting. It is believed that sooner or later (certainly), the country will witness total digital switch-over. This means that access to satellite television will drastically increase.

The fundamental fact about satellite television is that it teaches norms and values in the society. Satellite television programmes and their influences on the cultural values of Nigerians have been observed to be a major concern. Many Nigerians relegate the indigenous culture and imitate Western cultures, especially American and European cultures and values. Some Nigerians appear to see everything Western in preference to African values, and superior to that of Nigerian cultures, norms and values. Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016) opine that the social fabric was completely devastated and a new culture of violence was implanted.” James, Daniel & Nnamdie (2017) opine that “It is a fact that majority of the foreign programmes shown on NTA and satellite television, provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi-TV, MyTV, and so on are sweet enemies.” The scholars furthers said that “Satellite television has the potentials to generate both positive and negative effects, and many studies have looked at the impact of television on society, particularly on children and adolescents in the aspects of sex violence, drug and alcohol, vulgar language, tattoos on the body and education”

The previous scholars as quoted above have researched into the influence of satellite television on Nigeria culture particularly on adolescents, sex violence, drug and alcohol, vulgar language, tattoos on the body and education” However, life continues after adolescent age and the effects of satellite television are beyond the aforementioned assertions. This study therefore seeks to evaluate the influence of satellite television on Nigerian culture: an evaluation of Idoma culture. To fill the gaps, the study evaluates the influence of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma; assesses the positive and negative influences of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma people, identifies the particular cultural value(s) of Idoma that is (are) influenced and by Satellite television and examines how satellite television could be used to promote Idoma cultural values.

1.3 Research Objectives

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of satellite television on Nigerian culture: an evaluation of Idoma culture. Others objectives provided as blueprint to guide this study include:

1. To evaluate the influence of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma.

2. To assess the positive and negative influences of satellite television on the

cultural values of Idoma people.

3. To identify the particular cultural value(s) of Idoma that is (are) influenced

by Satellite television.

4. To examine how satellite television can be used to promote Idoma cultural values.

1.4 Research Questions

1. What are the influences of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma?

2. What are the positive and negative influences of satellite television on the cultural

values of Idoma?

3. What are the particular cultural value(s) of Idoma that is (are) influenced by

satellite television?

4. What are the ways satellite television can be used to promote Idoma cultural

values?

1.5 Significance of Study

The research has immeasurable benefits to the Idoma people. It gives more understanding on how satellite television could be used to preserve the culture of Idoma against the influence of foreign satellite television channels. It assesses the positive and negative influence of satellite television on the cultural values of the Idoma. It also identifies the particular cultural values of the Idoma that are influenced by satellite television. It also at the end of the finding recommended ways to utilize satellite television to promote the Idoma cultural values instead of relegating it to the background for foreign culture(s). Idoma people have unique cultural heritages that deserved to be protected against the influence of cultural imperialism which emanates from satellite television and other means of international communication. The study has identified how satellite television could be used to preserve Idoma cultural values.

The efforts of this research would correct some contemporary Idoma youths who have relegated the Idoma culture for the Western culture. Today, some Idoma sons and daughters cannot speak Idoma Language but they could speak the foreign languages to the core. The identity of a tribe or nation is in the distinction in cultural values in terms of language, songs, dance, marriage rites, greetings, mode of dressing, just to mention but a few. Some contemporary Idoma youth dislike Idoma songs and sing Western music. As they show dislike for Idoma songs, they cannot dance to the tone of Idoma music. They see marriage in accordance with Idoma tradition and culture as less important to white wedding, hence, given more attention and preference to the later. A male Idoma youth is expected to bow his head when greeting an elder and female is also expected to bow her kneels as a sign of respect to the elder but today, they have learnt the arrogance in the pattern of greeting of the Western world through satellite television, hence, they stretch their hands to sake elders. Satellite television is capable of influencing culture as “Culture is learned, not inherited.” The Idoma youths see greeting in accordance with Idoma culture as uncivilized; hence, prefer not to bow to elders when they exchange greetings.

Furthermore, the research is useful to scholars in the field of Mass Communication. Mass Communication scholars, especially those in broadcasting are interested in researching the effects of television on society and how best the society could use television. Hence, the study has added to the knowledge in the field of Mass Communication (broadcast in particular) by bring into limelight the influence of satellite television on the Nigeria culture, particularly the Idoma culture and how best satellite television could be used for the betterment of the society. It is also useful to scholar from other disciplines like Theatre Art, History etc who are interested in understanding the Idoma culture and how satellite television promotes movie industry.

Similarly, the research is useful to the researcher for an award of B.Sc. Mass Communication. It is the academic tradition and necessity for an undergraduate student to write a project to ensure his/her contribution to the field of his/her studies (discipline). This project would therefore stand as approval that the student (researcher) has been satisfied academically for a degree in Mass Communication.

1.6. Scope of the Study

This study evaluates the influence of satellite television on Nigerian culture: an evaluation of Idoma culture. The aspect of culture that the study evaluates include: Idoma language, mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing, music and dance, Idoma folktales/proverbs, marriage rite, Idoma carnival/festival, animal husbandry, culture of discipline/ hard-working, and absolute forbidden of infidelity. The research was conducted in Benue State, Nigeria.

1.7. Limitation of the Study

There is possibility that some respondents may not have given true information on how the satellite television influences their cultural lifestyles. However, that was beyond the ability of the researcher to decide it for them. Pinsonneault and Kraemer (1993) agree that surveys … generally have limitation where an understanding of the historical context of phenomena is required. Bell (1996) observed that “biases may occur, either in the lack of response from intended participants or in the nature and accuracy of the responses that are received.” Other sources of error include intentional misreporting of behaviours by respondents to confound the survey results or to hide inappropriate behaviour.

Furthermore, respondents may have difficulty assessing their own behaviours or have poor recall of the circumstances surrounding their behaviours. Also, the field survey was hectic and it witnessed mortality rate of four questionnaire copies, which reduced the respondents to three hundred and ninety six instead of the four hundred respondents as stated by the sample size.

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

  1. Influence

Influence is the effect that somebody or something has on the way a person thinks or behave or on the way that something works or develops. Jeffrey (2011) defines influence as “compelling behaviour change without threat of punishment or promise of reward.” Influence in other words is the power that somebody or something has to make somebody or something behave in a particular way without the use of force.

Influence as used in this study is the act or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command. This implies that satellite television broadcasting has power to exercise command on the viewers without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command. Satellite television without any promise of reward or threat has the ability to change behaviour of the audience due to live transition of sounds and pictures (audiovisual) that enhance believability.

  1. Satellite Television

It is imperative to us to know what satellite is before we go into what satellite television is. Kombol (2015, p 67) states that “Satellites are sophisticated devices launched into the space to ease communication (transmission and reception of signals) around the world.” What then is satellite television? Satellite Broadcasting & Communications Association (2017) asserts that, “…satellite television broadcasting is a system that delivers television directly to consumer homes using communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit.” Similarly, Edward (2009) defines satellite television as “the television broadcast system that transmits television programmes through satellite data signal orbiting in the space to the home of consumers who are connected to receive the service via personal satellite dishes.”

To the researcher, satellite television is the system aided by satellite signal, which disseminates television programmes to urban and remote audiences that are connected through satellite antennae to receive the signal worldwide.

  1. Cultures

Okpeh & Ugbegili (2013) say that, culture is the totality of group expression, a historical process and a dynamic entity. Culture is a set of shared and enduring meaning, values, and beliefs that characterize national, ethnic, or other groups and orient their behaviour. According to Olaosebikan (1987), “culture is the total way of life of a people.”

To the research, culture is the way of life of people, who are related by accentors (lineages) or geography, which gives expression in language, dressing, beliefs, music and dance, just to mention but a few.

  1. Evaluation

Canadian Evaluation Association says “Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the design, implementation or results of an initiative for the purposes of learning or decision-making.” Evaluation is the act of examining something in order to judge its value, quality, importance, effect, extend or condition. Evaluation as used in this study is an assessment of the value and extends of effect of satellite television on Idoma culture

  1. Idoma

The Idoma people are ancient expert warriors, hunters, farmers and peace-loving ethnic group in Nigeria. Idoma is the name of the ethnic group and also the name of the language they speak; residing at the lower and western areas of Benue State in Nigeria. Other Idoma groups can be found in Cross Rivers, Enugu and Nassarawa states in Nigeria. National African Language Resource Center says The Idoma people are predominantly farmers. They grow yams, millet and sorghum, and place these cultivations at the heart of their festivals.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Review of Concepts

There are two salient concepts, which required to be reviewed in this study. These include: satellite television and culture. Media scholars, scientists, technologists, anthropologists and historians have provided useful understanding of these concepts.

2.1.1 Satellite Television

Satellite television is the system aided by satellite signal, which disseminates television programmes to urban and remote audiences that are connected through satellite antennae and decoders to receive the signal worldwide. John (1997) says “…satellite television broadcasting is a system that delivers television programmes using communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit.” This implies that satellite television uses communication satellite, which is fixed in the space “22,300 miles above the Atlantic Ocean”, has the capacity to disseminate its programmes worldwide. Kombol (2015, p 67) agrees that, “Satellites are sophisticated devices launched into the space to ease communication (transmission and reception of signals) around the world.” Communication satellites have made satellite television a reality. In a similar view, Internet.com asserts that “Satellite TV uses satellites in orbit to beam programme signals to audience’ homes all over the world. The signal is then received by a small exterior dish, transmitted to a set-top box, and displayed on the TV.”

Satellite television has the capacity in disseminating television programmes to the homes of individuals who are connected to the signal. With this understanding of what satellite television is, it is imperative for us to go down memory lane on the advancements of this technology (satellites television).

2.1.2 History of Satellite Television

The history of satellite television cannot be said to be comprehensive without a snappy look at the history of television and communication satellite as a whole. Television broadcasting began first in Britain in 1936, followed by United States of America in 1939. The first television station in Nigeria was established by the Western Regional Government on October 31, 1959, a year before Nigeria’s independence on 1st October, 1960. It was known as the Western Nigerian Television (WNTV), it was the first in Africa. The Eastern Nigerian Government followed suit on October 1, 1960 with the establishment of the Eastern Nigeria Television (ENTV), Enugu, as part of the attractions to mark the independence of Nigeria from the British rule. Ever since, the spread of television broadcasting has covered the whole country (Nigeria) with many privately owned television stations in addition to the government owned stations.

Private owned television broadcast started in Nigeria in 1992. According to Ciboh (2006 p 189)

Full privatization commenced with the establishment of National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) as a parastatal in the Ministry of Information under Decree 38 of 1992. The NBC is saddled with the responsibility to regulate and control private broadcasting to ensure quality and fairness, promote indigenous culture, moral and community life.”

He further states that following this policy, NBC licensed two private radio stations, 14 television stations and 18 satellite cable transmission stations between 1993 and 1995. Out of the 14 licensed stations, only four were able to commence broadcasting within the June 24, deadline by NBC. These four include “Minaji System TV, Clapperboard TV, DITV and Galaxy.” However, today we have over 450 active satellite and cable and local public and private television stations in Nigeria.

The evolution of Direct Satellite Television Broadcasting can be confidently said to be made possible through the launch of communication satellite in July 23, 1962. After the launch of the first communication satellite, more advance communication satellites were launched. Keystone & Getty Images in Christopher (2012) says “Telstar 2 was launched in May 1963, and other Telstar satellites followed it into orbit and that is the monument to the birth of satellite communications.” Despite the existence of satellite and television before the 70s, little progress was made until television started to broadcast with satellite on March 1, 1978 and from this point many television networks adopted satellite television as the main means of distribution to network affiliates.

Furthermore, varieties of technologies have been used, including analogue and digital modulations and both standard and high-definition television formats. Certain systems have been entirely national in scope, while others have broadcast on a regional basis. From a regulatory viewpoint, both Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands and Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS) bands have been used. Direct-to-Home systems are sometimes also referred to as Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) systems. This Direct-to-Home system is seems to be major problem today as it bypasses regulations and transmits directly to subscribers from satellite with improper or no regulations.

John (1997) says “although DTH satellite television was a dream of satellite engineers since the early 1960s, little progress was made until the early 1980s. Satellite technology steadily improved in generating high-radio frequency (RF) power levels, and ground electronics improved by the introduction of low-cost, low-noise microwave transistors.” 1994 marked the era of multichannel, all-digital DTH satellite delivery began with two systems in the United States, the Primestar system owned by a consortium of cable firms, and a system operated primarily by DirecTV, Inc., a unit of Hughes Electronics. The Primestar system used ‘‘medium-power’’ satellites and approximately 0.75– 1.0 m dishes; the DirecTV broadcast used ‘‘high-power’’ satellites and 45-cm dishes. By late 1997 the Primestar system delivered more than 160 channels to nearly 2 million homes in the United States by year end of 1997. The DirecTV service delivered more than 175 channels to 3.3 million homes in the United States by year end of 1997. Today, “61. 5 million people living in households that subscribe to receive satellite television in United State of America, 1.68 billion households are projected to use television worldwide by 2021. (www.statista.com>Technology&Telecommunication>Consumer>Electronics)

In the Nigeria scene, statistic presents the number of pay television subscribers in Nigeria in 2015 as 3.63 million and a forecast 7.52 million by 2021(www.statista.com>Media&Advertising>Radio,TV&Film). Regardless of the figures of pay subscribers, the numbers of the members of the households that watch satellite television are not known. Today there are Free-to-Air satellite television channels in Nigeria, known as Free TV: an initiative of the Federal Government of Nigeria to ensure the full digital switch-over in Nigeria. This Free-to-Air decoder has over 30 channel including foreign and national stations without a pay subscription.

Direct-to-Home system is the type of satellite television broadcasting that transmits television programme to subscriber home with little or no regulation as a result of how the technology is designed. James et ta. (2017) agree that “Direct satellite broadcasting threatens to undermine state control of broadcasting and communication. John (1997) says “Direct-to-home (DTH) satellite television broadcasting has no strict technical or legal definition.” He further states that, “Since the late 1970s the term has been used to delineate commercial systems that deliver television directly to consumer homes using communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit.” This implies that satellite television is unlike cable television that uses coaxial cable (wirer). Satellite television signal is wireless and accessible in remote areas than cable television.

In the Nigeria scene, today, we have over 450 active public and private television stations, whose programmes and contents cater for various television viewers (old and young). These stations provide such programmes such as: comedy, sports, cartoons, home videos, movies, soap operas, international shows as well as local political debates.

Satellite television service provider increases everyday in Nigeria. These include DSTV, which operates with subsidiary name as Multi-Choice. Multi-Choice is a premium pay-as-you-watch television, connected to many homes in Nigeria through the DSTV platform that has over two hundred channels. In addition, there are other satellite pay-per-view platforms such GoTV and Startimes. The Direct-to Home satellite television broadcasting systems have varieties of interesting programmes that hold viewers spellbound. However, not all the programmes are good enough for Nigeria society and Idoma culture in particular as some of the contents tend to shape the behaviour and way of life of the people into some unhealthy lifestyles.

2.1.3 The Uses/Advantages of Satellite Television

Satellite television undoubtedly has made the world a global village. The uses and advantages of it are enormous. They include but not limited to the following: Information, education and entertainment, live television broadcast, high quality audiovisual broadcast, relatively affordable, employment opportunity, social, economic and cultural integrations, wider geographical coverage/accessibility in remote areas, stimulation of competition among satellite television technology providers/stations, parental control option, multiple channels, etc.

Information, Education and Entertainment

The primary aims of media are to inform, educate and entertain the audience(s). Satellite television undoubtedly performs these roles. The society needs information to copy with their daily lives. The local means of passing information such as town-crying, line of shouting men etc are not sufficient and effective ways of passing information to heterogeneous and anonymous audience.

Satellite television educates the members of the public on several issues which cut across health education, politics, agriculture, citizens’ rights and obligations, cooking, religion, just mention but a few. It effectively educates the public on health concern by hosting health practitioners on discussion or interview programmes. The audience get some exposure on how they could live a healthy life or cure a particular aliment. It educates the public about the important of political participation and they get to know who to vote for and their right to be voted for. May people get to know about their rights through the programmes the watch on television. It as well teaches the citizens on what they should do as citizens to ensure that government functions. Example of such education show is “Tax Matters” on NTA. Cooking is another good education that is made possible without the audience going to catering school. Society is shaped with good moral via religion that is propagated on the television in form of preaching. It gives formal education on several channels like NTA Knowledge etc.

Television is the most vibrant mass communication medium that entertains the audience. This is because it has the capacity of audiovisual. People tuned-in to watch movies, music, comedy and some other edutainment programmes.

Live Television Broadcast

Satellite television through communication satellite has made the world a “global village.” Events far away from Nigeria as far as Afghanistan, Israel, Argentina, Portugal etc -could be at our finger tip through live transmission on satellite television. A good example of such live transmission is football matches. Sport lovers or fans miss no action in the field because every action is seen on their screens as it is happing. Political rallies and live church services are good example of satellite television live broadcast.

Relatively Affordable

Access to satellite television was affluent in different part of the world, especially when it was newly launched. The cost of the technology and the installation were exorbitant particularly in the Nigeria scene. However, it is relatively affordable today. This is because there is competition in the market among satellite television equipment providers as well as among satellite TV stations. It is not only relatively affordable but free depending on the one that one is using. For example, there are free channels on most of the decoders, which means that even when one does not pay for subscription; those ones are still available and accessible. Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) channels are mostly free. Free TV launched in 2017 by the Federal Government of Nigeria, in attempt to ensure digital switch-over in some major cities in Nigeria has over 30 channels free (without subscription). Those 30 channels are made up of local and foreign stations.

Employment Opportunity

Satellite television services have increased all over the world. These have provided employment opportunities to the producers of the technology and those that work in the media. It creates avenue for entrepreneurships to thrive. Movie makers produce more movies as it encourages a good platform for distribution and display.

Social, Economic and Cultural Integrations

Satellite TV encourages social integration among individuals and nations of the world. This is because it transmits social events in different part of the world and this enhances social integration. It also promotes the economy of the nations of the world as it exposes different economic opportunities to people through news, live event and entertainment.

It creates an avenue for cultural integration; culture is the way of life of group of people and it is learnt not inherited. Since it is learnt, people showcase their cultural heritages through satellite television and other parts of the world embrace them. For example, some Western culture is learnt by Nigerians and Idoma people in particular as it is made available to them on satellite TV. Different Western programmes and movies are disseminated to different parts of the world and vice versa.

It is also economically viable. It does not only create jobs but also integrate the economy of nations of the world. The is done through educative, informative and advertisements of available resource, product, services and opportunities across the globe

Accessibility in Remote Areas

This is one of the foremost advantages of satellite television; it is accessible in any remote area where you can mount your antenna or the dish. It is unlike cable television that requires wirers. The installation is no longer difficult and the signals are improved than initial stage of satellite television. Television as it is today is the biggest means of international communication followed by the Internet. This is not unconnected with its accessibility of it in the remote areas; as it could be easily learned to operate than the Internet.

Stimulation of Competition among Satellite Television technology Providers/Stations

The economy of any country is better off when there are competitions among the manufacturers of equipment as well as the service providers of satellite television. Different communication satellites control satellite television and different decoders and antennas as well as channels are available. Because they are many, there are competitions among them for them to remain relevant in the market and these determine good quality services.

Parental Lock Out Option

Satellite television has parental lock out option, which allows parents to lock (block) any channel that they do not want their children to watch. This is the best and easiest way to control satellite television channels that are unhealthy for any society especially the children. Each parent is therefore advice to use the lock out option in their direct to home system of broadcasting decoders.

Multiple Channels

Satellite television has varieties of channels, which compete over viewership. These channels specialize on variety of programmes: musical, news, religion, movies etc.

2.1.4 The Disadvantages of Satellite Television

It is indisputable fact that whatever that has advantage(s) also has disadvantage(s); it therefore becomes imperative to examine the downside of satellite television. They include but not limited to the following: Lack of regulation, cultural erosion, malfunction in bad weather, additional cost for special programme packages lack of enough orientation on the usage of satellite television, encouragement of wastage and laziness, etc.

Lack of Regulation

Direct-to-Home (DTH) or Direct Broadcasting Satellite (DBS) are system that broadcast information directly to end-users via individual reception system (dish or antenna). It lacks equivalent regulation by the government compare to the regulation level of the local television stations. This is because it is broadcast direct to subscribers and some of the channels are totally foreign and they lack local content.

Cultural Erosion

Cultural erosion is what we could better describe as the downside of satellite television. According to (Babaleye & Ajisafe 2016) and James et al. (2017) “It is noteworthy that not all messages that the media project, are at all positive.” Satellite television has a lot of channels available and accessible in most countries of the world. Some of these channels are foreign and because they are foreign, they mostly display the local content of the nations of origin without considering the influence of it on the other countries that watch the channels.

Culture is dynamic and learnt; because television appeals to sight and hearing, it enhances believability. People believe what they see and behave likewise. The media space and television in particular is dominated by the Western television stations. Consequently, the Western lifestyles are displayed on television and the citizens of the Third World countries imitate the lifestyles of the Western nations and abandon theirs. Apart from the influence of the movies and other media messages shown on television, the production of the media technologies are also in the hands of the developed nations. They have the expertise while the underdeveloped nations largely depend on them.

Satellite television programmes from the developed nations have contributed negatively by increasing negative lifestyles on Nigerians and Idoma in particular. The negative lifestyles some Nigerians and Idoma in particular could learn from the satellite television programmes include but not limited to Skippy dressing, speech mannerism, lack of respect for elders, the use of gun and other violent acts, fornication, infidelity in marriage, divorce, raping, rough handling of women in love making (via blue films), lesbianism and homosexuality.

Malfunction in Bad Weather

Satellite television uses exterior technologies like the dish and antenna. These are sometimes affected by thunder, lightening, wind etc. Consequently, the signals malfunction and subscribers could not enjoy the service the paid for.

Additional Cost for Special Programme Packages

Satellite television service providers like DSTV and Startimes have different programme packages and the cheaper packages have fewer live telecast. For users to access a live telecast like football matches and other live sport channels, they paid high cost for such subscriptions. Subscribers that paid for fewer packages have no access to such channels. It therefore, creates unequal treatment to subscribers.

Lack of Enough Orientation on the Usage of Satellite Television

Satellite television decoders’ operations have no high technicalities. However, they require basic knowledge for the subscribers to use the decoders optimally. The information on the users’ manual is not sufficient for effective operation. For instance, one could lock some channel if one does not like what is shown on those channels; especially, when the channels in question have programmes that would not be understood by children and adolescence. Some parents have no idea on how they could lock such channels. Some users may not read the manual very well and understand them; hence, they could not use it effectively, especially, when the signal malfunctions.

Encouragement of Wastage and Laziness

A popular saying goes “too much of everything is bad.”Some football fans across Nigeria and Idoma land in particular have wasted quality time of their lives to watch live matches on satellite television. Significant percentages of Nigerians who are not earning their living from football leave their works and studies to watch matches. This leads to low productivity in their jobs and poor performance in academic engagements. Time wasted can never be gained! Some students could use their last money to watch matches even when they have no food to eat. This invariably affects their brains to function effectively. Time immemorial and at present, many people are dying as a result of arguments generating from football matches they have watched on satellite television. Vanguard.com agrees that “this sort of incident occurs regularly and wonder why people should fight and stab themselves over club and footballers who do not even know them.”

It also encourages laziness. Significant percentages of Nigerians, Idoma people in particular below fifty years of age watch satellite television in excess. They stay glue to television for one movie or the other. Betting over sport matches has become job to some people. In the time past, when one died while watching football match, it was believed that it was because of his passion for football and other ailment. Today, people are frustrated and dying because of the outcome of matches that they predicted on betting.

2.1.5 CULTURE

Culture like any other concept has been defined by many scholars. However, there is no single definition that is generally accepted. Obiora (2002) states that “culture is a continuous process of change.” Similarly, Okpeh & Ugbegili (2013) say that, “culture is the totality of group expression, a historical process and a dynamic entity.” This implies that culture can change.” Despite the change, culture continues to give a community a sense of dignity, continuity, security and binds society together. According to Olaosebikan (1987), “culture is the total way of life of a people.” This means that it encompasses everything that a group of people do in any society. Kluckhohn (1988) says “culture is the historically-created design for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational and non-rational, which may exist at any given time as a potential guide for the behaviour of a people.” Invariably people have no doubt about their culture even when it dos and don’ts are not written. Gidden (2000) defines culture as “the ways of life of the members of a society and it includes their dressing, marriage, family life, pattern of work, religious ceremonies and leisure pursuits.” Culture is viewed as a configuration of how institutions of society function. He further states that “culture is complex and includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as member of the society.”

The cardinal features that characterize culture is that, it has its own identity. The fact that we are humans does not mean we are the same. Culture changes exactly the same way as human beings change. However the changes are expected to improve culture of group of people not the other way round. In other words, culture is dynamic. Olaosebikan (1987) agrees that “culture is part of the dynamic life of society, it grows and changes as it responds to the other changes taking place in the society, and prominent among which are economic changes.” Another attribute of culture, Nwegbu et al. (2011 p 34) assert that “culture is learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or other means of communication flow from one generation to another.” For instance, in the old days, a young Nigerian girl from Idoma culture would bend her kneel to greet her elders; but in Britain a girl may stretch hand to shake. Today, the Britannia style of greeting is now preferred to Idoma style by some Idoma people, especially the youths. Culture is not genetically transmitted; rather it takes place by the process of absorption from the social environment or through deliberate instruction. This is to say basically that culture is learned. Such learning does not occur through natural inheritance. This is because even language which is the major identity of a group of people are not inherited but learnt, hence, any parent that fails to teach his/her child his language, such child could not speak the language. Jekayinfa (2002) agree that “man learns culture through the processes of socialization, enumeration, personal experience and through deliberate indoctrination or teaching.” It is worthy of note that learning of culture is a lifelong process and what we should learn should be good lifestyles not the bad. Learning of culture is from birth to death. Jekayinfa (2002) also says “what is learnt differs from society to society and from one stage to another.” However, all that is learnt should be geared towards the realization of the goal of the tribe or nation. For instance, killing of twins was a culture in some parts of Nigeria but today, we have learnt that it should not be part of our way of life (culture) and that could be considered as an improvement.

In every continent, country or tribe, there are unique ways of life that defined such people, which make them different from other societies. Idoma as a tribe in Nigeria has a lot of unique cultural heritages, which deserve to be preserved despite the imperativeness to accept modification where there is need for modification.

2.1.6 Some Unique Idoma Cultural Heritages to be Preserved

The unique Idoma cultural heritages, which deserve to be preserved despite the influence of satellite television and modernization include but not limited to the following: Idoma language, the mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing, music and dance, Idoma folktales/proverbs, marriage rite, Idoma carnival/festival, animal husbandry, culture of discipline/ hard-working, communal Living and Acceptance of Strangers, absolute forbidden of infidelity etc

Idoma Language

National Africa Language Resource Center asserts that “Idoma is the name by which the people of Idoma ethnic group designate themselves, and are addressed as such by their neighbours. Idoma is also the name of the language of the group as well as their land.” Idoma has different dialects base on the location. It is important for parents to teach their children the Idoma language to ensure their children would have preference of Idoma language to English language; especially when they communicate with their fellow Idoma people. Doing that will preserve the Idoma language despite the other languages they learn in schools and through satellite television. Idoma alphabet should be taught to ensure that present generation and posterity could only speak but also write in Idoma language.

Mode of Greeting

Idoma people are respective people and this portrayed in their mode of greeting. A younger male person bow to elders when exchanging greetings while a female bow her kneels as a sign of respect. This deserve to be preserved because, when someone greets in that manner, the receiver of the greeting in this part of the world is of no doubt perceives such person as well cultured and nurtured person and it enhances good relationship.

Conflict Resolution Mechanism

National Africa Language Resource Center asserts that “the Idoma people are ancient expert warriors and hunters and peace-loving ethnic group in Nigeria.” Nevertheless, in every human society, conflict is inevitable. However, the Idoma people like to settle their difference through the Council of Elders than to drag each other to court. Anyone that takes his or her brother to police station pays fine in some clans of Idoma land. This does not mean that they tolerate impunity but deals with any violator severely in the traditional way. This has to be preserved because most at times, it is more effective than the litigations in the court.

Mode of Dressing

The Idoma people have a decent ways of dressing with African materials, which meet the good toast of decency in the African setting. The Idoma has cultural attire which is used for special traditional gathering or any other special event as means of identification of Idoma people anywhere they found themselves. This attire is back and red in colour. The oral history has it that Idoma people fought a lot of war in other to settle down in the present Idoma land. Consequently, the read in the Idoma cultural attire signifies the blood of the ancient people that fought for the emancipation of Idoma people. The black symbolizes the fertile soil of Idoma land, which is used for agriculture, which is the many occupation of the Idoma people. Therefore, it is pertinent to preserve the Idoma decent ways of dressing which attract a lot of admiration in the comity of nations (tribes in this regard.)

Idoma music and Dance

Popular saying has it that “music has no language” meaning that it is entertaining to anyone that listened to it regardless of understanding the meaning. Idoma people are known for fascinating cultural music and dance. These include but not limited to “Okprigidee, Alaya” etc. It is relevant to uphold those fascinating music and dance for the present and the future generations.

Idoma Folktales and Proverbs

According to Microsoft (2009) folktale is a story or legend that is passed down orally from one generation to the next and becomes part of a community’s tradition. Idoma people have folktales that they used in teaching children good morals and entertainment. Idoma proverbs are also worthy of mentioning, which deserve preservation.

Marriage Rite or Traditional Marriage

For the purpose of procreation and continuity of human existence, Idoma people marry among themselves. They also intermarry across tribes, religions, national or international boundaries. Idoma marriage is approached in three major steps: “Awaji ole, Osach chefu and Ajee okpokpo.” The first is when a man who is interested in Idoma daughter would come boldly to tell the family that he loves his daughter and wants to marry her. The second is when the man is considered ok by the family and he comes and engages the woman. The final of the traditional rite is the wine-head-carrier when the bride price is paid and accorded with celebrations. The white weddings that dominate our society today are traditions of the white and Idoma sons and daughters should not prefer white wedding to Idoma traditional wedding.

Idoma Carnival/Festival

Idoma people engage in cultural carnivals and festivals to showcase the reach cultural heritage of the people. Idomacarnival.com asserts that “the Idoma carnival is formally known as Agila Carnival and it was a vision of Prince Edwin Ochai, the president of Idoma International Carnival with the objectives to blend Idoma cultural heritage and entertainment; to introduce potential opportunity of Idoma land to the wider world”

Before the modernization that gave birth to Agila Carnival and Ogbadibo Carnival, Idoma people showcase their reach cultural heritages during new yam festival, masquerade shows among others.

Animal Husbandry

The Anti-Open Grazing Law signed into law by the Governor Samuel Ortom of Benue State is not new to the Idoma people who engage in pastoral farming such as goat, pig etc. This is because they have the culture of ranches for animals and ensure peaceful co-existence among themselves and other non-Idoma who resides in Idoma land.

Culture of Discipline/ Hardworking

Idoma people are known for self-discipline and in extension, ensure that the children are well nurtured and be of good citizens. Any Idoma man has right to correct the children of others when they are wrong. Apart from discipline, they are also hard-working and ensure the take care of their families. Such virtue of discipline should not be water down by what we watch on satellite television and other means of international communication.

Communal Living and Acceptance of Strangers

Idoma people are peace loving people. Consequently, they live communally and share many properties in common. Even today, there are portion of lands that belong to a whole clan and not individuals. They also ensure that they entertain their strangers just like the biblical Abraham did to the angel.

2.2 Review of Related Literature and Empirical Studies

Previous assertions of scholars and studies on the influence of satellite television on cultural life of people as well as the usages of it for the betterment of society are major focus of the literature and empirical studies reviewed in this study.

2.2.1 The Influence of Satellite Television on the Audience

Media effects scholars are aware of the influences of the media on the audience. Hence they give priority to research into the reception of media messages. Studies into the effects and the influences of the media help the media consumers to use the media messages effectively and efficiently. The literature review therefore put a search light on the previous scholars’ assertions on the influence of satellite television on peoples’ cultures and harmonizes them.

The needs for information, education and entertainment have stressed the relevance of the media in our society. People need the media for various reasons as it is peculiar to such people at a particular time. Television is a medium that disseminates information, educates and entertains audience by means of audiovisual. Because television disseminates both picture and audio, it becomes more influential than radio. It is more influential because the audience could see and hear at the same time. Unlike the radio that only broadcast audio (sound). Like the popular saying goes “seeing believes.”

Communication satellites have made it possible for satellite television to make live event available at our finger tip. Because it shows us live events, people have no reasonable doubt of the information, education and the entertainment projected on their screens. James et al. (2017) say “We live in an enthralling world and even more enthralling society. From the moment we wake up until the moment we go back to our beds, we avail ourselves of numerous media programmes.” People stay glue to television every day for news, movies, live telecast among others. There is no doubt that television has made life better for people by given us the information that could grantee our safety and help us to cope with living. It promotes education; many people turned in to television just for educative programmes, which could be about their health, environment or social behaviour. Others turned in for entertainment and they have enough of it in a form of music, movies, comedies and other talk shows on television.

The human societies have become a “global village” with the help of satellite television and other means of international communication like internet in a form of World Wide Web (WWW), email, social media, teleconference among others. Satellite television does not only entertain, educate and inform us; it also connects individuals and group at a click of a button. Television makes life more beautiful and easier. Imagine how life would be if there was no television, it would have been like a beautiful bride in a perpetual darkness. The youth of today are perhaps the most significant users of the media. As Burtina (2005) posits “the idea that as intelligent as we are, with the freedom and ability to make our own choices, the issue of how much influence the media have over our decisions can be put to a test.” He further states that this could be one of the stringent issues that can necessitate a lengthy explanation and provide a good avenue that there can be no doubt that the media influence us in innumerable ways. Mass media particularly television plays a vital role in the lives of the people in the society. It is a tool for news, information and a platform for sharing ideas. It has a unique capability to dramatize, to focus our attention, to reinforce our actions towards issues. Satellite television has enormous programmes that influence decisions and to inspire the youth. Mckee (2009) has given some significant questions such as: “do you feel attempting a stunt from a movie; do you base your fashion on what you see that the celebrities are wearing; do you copy the hairstyles of your famous personalities; have you ever attempted to walk like your role model? If the answer is ‘yes’ to any of these questions, then it is fitting to say that the media work positively in exerting influence on one’s life.”

James et al. (2017) assert that “television is a powerful teacher.” There are many programmes through which youth learn. Some public television programmes motivate visits to the zoo, libraries, bookstores, museums and other attractive recreational settings, and educational videos can certainly serve as powerful teaching devices. In some disadvantaged settings, healthy television habits may actually be a beneficial teaching tool.

It is a well known fact that whatever that has advantages also has disadvantages. According to (Babaleye & Ajisafe 2016, James et al. (2017) “It is noteworthy that not all messages that the media project, are at all positive.” Cultural imperialism is one the downsides of satellite television and the media as a whole. Schiller (1969) initiated the debate on cultural imperialism with his series of studies on international communication; its main finding revolves around cultural invasion and domination. The concept of cultural imperialism was captured in Schiller (1969)’s definition of the concept, and, subsequently in that of Boyd-Barrett-media imperialism. Schiller defined cultural imperialism as “the sum of the processes by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how the dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of the dominating centre of the system”. Indeed, Boyd-Barrett used media imperialism as an alternative and inclusive concept to establish both the structural domination and resultant cultural invasion and domination inherent in Schiller’s definition. He, therefore, defined media imperialism as “the process whereby ownership, structure, distribution or contents of the media in any country are singly or collectively subjected to substantial external pressures from the media interests of any other country or countries without proportionate reciprocation of influence by the country affected.” This is the hallmark of the problem of satellite television. It is mostly owned and controlled by the developed nations and as a result, they have upper hand in projecting their culture on the less-developed nations (precisely Nigeria and Idoma in particular in this regard).

He further states that the absence of reciprocation of media influence combines both the element of cultural invasion by another power and the element of imbalance of power resources between the countries concerned. The two elements of invasion and the imbalance of power resources justify the term “imperialism” (Boyd-Barrett, 1989:118 in Babaleye & Ajisafe 2016 p 43). There are two major suggestions in Schiller and Boyd Barrett’s definitions, which form the main theses of cultural/media imperialism. The first thesis is that, global communication is dominated and controlled by a few transnational corporations that are owned and controlled by the Western countries, particularly the United States. These few transnational corporations spread their operations across many countries in the world and across various forms of media businesses- production, distribution, among others. Srebeny (2000) agrees that “This suggestion has been supported over the years by a wide range of studies” The second part of cultural / media imperialism is that the concentration of media corporations in the West inevitably brings about unequal, asymmetric and one–way flow of communication to the extent that such imbalance affects the diversity and plurality of global culture and undermines cultural sovereignty of the developing nations. In other words, the concentration of the media in the West presupposes that media products embedded in the values, dominant ideology and ways of life of the West will flow without reciprocation from the developing nations. The result of this is that, cumulatively, local or indigenous culture of the people in the developing nations is being eroded or degenerated to bring about homogenization of culture. Because people are influenced by what they see, the less-developed nations like Nigeria see the culture of the developed nations as superior to their culture.

Tunstall (1987) explained cultural imperialism by noting that “cultural imperialism presupposes that authentic traditional and local culture in many parts of the world is being battered out of existence by the indiscriminate dumping of large quantities of slick commercial and media products mainly from the US.” Essentially, cultural imperialism holds that as a result of their exposure to foreign programmes that dominate their media environment, people in developing nations align their values and aspirations closely with those of the US and other advanced countries of the world. Foreign programmes have rapid, direct and immediate effects on the minds of the audience in developing nations that consume them. Through the foreign programmes that people in developing nations are heavily exposed to, the people are directly or indirectly subjected to a subtle process of indoctrination into foreign, particularly American, ways of life to the extent that they tend to abandon or jettison their traditional behaviour and values (Sparks, 2007).

Cultural imperialism which is the downside of satellite television has been made possible through many other world views such globalisation. Globalization is a planned, systematic process or project of homogenisation of world culture in terms economy, language, among others. There are some factors responsible for cultural imperialism; Sparks (2007) opines that “The first factor and probably, the major one, is that the developing nations do not have the technological proficiency that characterizes broadcasting. James et al (2017) agree that, “the developing nations largely depend on the developed nations to supply them both the technologies and experts to run their broadcasting, and this dependency directly or indirectly influences their programming formats and initiatives to the extent that what dominates their air space is copied or imported programmes.” The second factor is the model of the broadcasting industries and institutions, which, according to Sparks (2007 in James A. et al. (2017)) is “implanted into the developing countries with very little sensitivity to local needs.” This implies that the way broadcasting is down is not a plan of the developing counties but as designed and considered fit by the developed nations’ media. The third one is professional; the professional norms of the media production are developed in advanced countries and are just adopted and adapted by the developing nations of the world. For instance, news commercialization is a professional norm of the media in the United Sates. Today, news is commercialized in Nigeria and that implies that he who has the money determine to some extend what is heard in the media. All these factors relate to the main crux of cultural imperialism. As the technologies and models of broadcasting institutions are imported to the developing nations, it then becomes automatic that the developing nations are bombarded with foreign programmes that ultimately shape the ideas, world view and traditional values of the people in developing nations (Sparks,2007).

The emergence of satellite television tends to exacerbate (aggravate) the problem of cultural imperialism. Schramm (1990 in James et al. (2017)) noted that “satellite television threatened to attack the media system of independent countries with a flood of entertainment programming.” This appears to be a prediction that is largely manifesting in the lives of Nigerian youths and Idoma youths in particular. This is because since the inception of satellite television operators in Nigeria, with the emergence of Multi-choice DSTV in 1995, HITV in 2007 and Star Times in 2010, Free-to Air in 2017, foreign television entertainment programmes constituted the largest proportion of most of the private television stations and, particularly, satellite television companies. Direct satellite broadcasting threatens to weaken states’ control of broadcasting and communication.

One could confidently says that, as it could be deduced from various works on cultural imperialism, foreign programmes that dominate the media space of most developing nations, particularly through satellite broadcasting, destroy the developmental potential of the local media in Nigeria. Some broadcasters could no longer be creative to produce programmes that have local content and respect the value of the Nigerians. Schiller in particular lamented that “the foreign programmes dominated by entertainment that has taken over the media space of most developing nations bear no direct relation to the immediate problems of the majority of the people in the countries.” Galtung (1991), in his idea of structural imperialism, put the blame for this phenomenon on the elites of the developing nations. Foreign programmes are popular and are widely accepted, perhaps without the use of force because the elites in the developing nations found the values in the foreign programmes attractive. Today it is no longer blame on the elites alone because even the ordinary people have thrown their weight in preference of foreign programmes to our locally produced programmes. Ordinary Nigeria and Idoma in particular prefer to watch Western films than the Nigeria and Idoma films respectively. Nevertheless, the elites in Nigeria, for example, popularise the foreign values as natural, inevitable and as an indication of modernity and affluent.

Television’s influence on the Idoma culture has the potentials to generate both positive and negative effects. Many studies have looked at the influence of television on society, particularly on children and adolescents. According to Joyce (2008) in Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016) “an individual child’s developmental level is a critical factor in determining whether the medium will have positive or negative effects.” Not all television programmes are bad but data showing the negative effects of exposure to violence, inappropriate sexuality and offensive language are plentiful. Children cherish television extensively. One could conclude that they spend more time watching television varies between different age groups and cultures. Joyce (2008) states that “relationship exists between youth’s high exposure to imported programmes and increase in the number of immoral and licentious acts.” The amount of time that young people spend watching television increases significantly and unrestrained. A number of children begin watching television at an earlier age and in greater amounts than expected. Scholars are of the view that television’s influence on children and adolescents is related to how much time they spend watching television. As a result, with prolonged viewing, the world shown on television becomes the real world. James et al (2017) say that “television viewing frequently limits children’s time for vital activities such as playing, reading, learning to talk, spending time with peers and family, storytelling, participating in regular exercise and developing other necessary physical, mental and social skills.”

Today, Nigeria children and Idoma children in particular are the controllers of satellite television decoder remote controls. They beg daddies, mummies, uncles, etc to change to channels of their choices when they are not in possession of the remote controls. Apart from the amount of time spent in front of the television, other factors that influence the medium’s influence on children include the child’s developmental level and whether children watch television alone or with their parents. Many children are technological incline than their parents; hence, parents sometimes fail to lock some channels that are unhealthy for the children. Children watch channels of their choices in the absence of their parents and they learn all kinds of bad behaviour which are unacceptable as a moral standard in Idoma land.

Watching television takes time away from reading and schoolwork. James et al (2017) assert that “more recent and well-controlled studies shown that even 1 hour to 2 hours of daily unsupervised television viewing by school-aged children has a significant deleterious effect on academic performance, especially reading.” The amount of violence on television is on the rise as a result; violent acts by children and youth in our contemporary society are unspeakable. Exposure to heavy doses of television violence increases aggressive behaviour, particularly in boys. Many studies link television or newspaper publicity of suicides to an increased suicide risk. Physicians see a child with a history of aggressive behaviour and inquire about the child’s exposure to violence portrayed on television. Because television takes time away from play and exercise activities.

Many health experts believe that youth who watch a lot of television are less physically fit and more likely to eat high fat and high energy snack foods. Joyce (2008) is of the view that “television viewing makes a substantial contribution to obesity because prime time commercials promote unhealthy dietary practice.” The fat content of advertised products exceeds the normal average diet and nutritional recommendations. Most of the food advertising on television are for high calorie foods such as fast foods, candy and pre-sweetened cereals. Some argue that commercials for healthy food make up very low per cent of the food advertisements shown on television. The number of hours of television viewing also corresponds with an increased relative risk of higher cholesterol (element that helps in the formation of hormones) levels in youth. These adverts of foreign foods on television have led to preference of foreign foods to Idoma delicious meals like “okoho” and others.

Consequently, the younger generation could not cook Idoma local delicacies like they do foreign meals. Television can also contribute to eating disorders in young people, who may emulate the slim role models seen on television.

Many people claim that television has become a sex educator as some television programmes depict scenes relating to sex. Television exposes youth to adult sexual behaviour in ways that portray these actions as normal and risk-free, sending the message that because these forms of behaviour are frequent, ‘everybody does it’. Sex between unmarried partners is shown more often than sex between spouses, while sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy are not adequately mentioned. Some people believe that the media can influence sexual responsibility by promoting birth control, such as condom use. There is no concrete evidence to support this concept. People watch divorces on television and adapt to divorce in any slit quarrel between spouses. This undoubted has increased the cases of divorce in our contemporary society.

Advertisements of alcohols on television promote drinking habit of the viewers. Joyce (2008) says that “convincing data suggest that advertising increases beer consumption, and in countries such as Sweden, a ban on alcohol advertising has led to a decline in alcohol consumption.” According to the scholar, passive advertising, which glamorizes smoking, has increased over the past few years. Television is not the only way that children learn about tobacco and alcohol use; the concern is that the consequences of the behaviour are not accurately depicted on television. It is unfortunate that many films and music videos show alcohol and tobacco use as normative behaviour without conveying the long term consequences of this use.

However, advertising can have positive effects on youth’s behaviour. For example, some alcohol manufacturers spend large per cent of their budgets on advertisements warning about the dangers of drinking while driving. Although some health care professionals disagree about the health benefits of appropriate milk use, milk consumption has increased as a result of print and broadcast advertisements. The developmental stage of a youth plays a role in the effect of commercials. They tend to believe what they are told and may even assume that they are deprived if they do not have advertised products. They do not understand the differences between a programme designed to entertain and a commercial designed to sell. Youth are passionate about commercials. Commercials largely promote sugared cereals, candy, fatty foods and fashion, to the admiration of youth considerably. Advertisements targeting adolescents are profoundly influential, particularly on a dramatized affluent and skimpy dressings which sells some products to the viewers. The question of whether children are more resilient to the influence of television is debated frequently.

Programmes promoting media awareness have been shown to be beneficial. They give students more understanding of how the media may affect them socially. James et al (2017) say that “Parents have to monitor and control their children’s viewing habits.” Parents play an important role in their children’s social learning, but if a parent’s views are not discussed explicitly with children, the medium may teach and influence by default. Other media, such as magazines, radio, video games and the Internet, also have the potentials to influence children’s culture (way of doing thing that is peculiar to a group of people) in terms of eating habits, exercise habits, buying habits and mental health. If children are allowed to be exposed to these media without adult supervision, they may have the same deleterious effects.

2.2.2 The Role of Satellite Television in Educating Nigerians

Satellite television has brought a lot of development into the developed nations of the world. In view of developments that have taken place in the broadcast systems of Europe, America and Asia due to communication satellites, it becomes imperative to discuss extensively the role satellite television in educating Nigerians and Idoma people in particular. Agarwal (2011) opines that “Satellite communication technology has proved to be a strong tool to support development education.” Nigeria and Idoma land in particular is backward in development; and “education is the bed rock that develop the society.” Agarwal (2011) opines that “Countries are taking steps to harness the power of satellites and the new communication technologies with the purpose of education and national development.” This implies that “what is good for the goose is good for the gander.” Nigeria is not exceptional. A satellite TV broadcasting system covering the whole world and a satellite TV education system covering the whole country could be established. With the opening of satellite education TV broadcasting programmes, more than 30 million people in Indian have got college or technical secondary school education and training.

Nigeria development policies have used broadcasting since the early 80s with the establishment of National Educational Technological Centre (NETC) under the auspices of Federal Ministry of Education. Community Viewing Centres (CVCs) were established to develop and promote educational programmes on radio and television. But it has not been properly harnessed. In those days, Nigerian development programmes like “Operation Feed the Nation”, “Let us Talk More English”, We can Talk English” and “National census” used Close Circuit Television (CCTV) viewing centres to educate people about the agricultural programmes and the use of radio to educate people on how to speak in English and importance of participation in head count respectively. Today, listen and viewing centres are no more and that does not mean that we have attained the needed development but as a result of system failure. The social-economic development of a nation depends on the information and education level of citizens. Idoma culture can be developed if we utilized the satellite television to educate the Idoma people and communicate the Idoma culture to the wider world. There is no country in the world which is economically powerful but educationally backward. Russia, USA and Japan are educationally powerful and having powerful economies.

It is a well known fact that electronic media like television is a powerful medium in educating the masses. So nations are making use of communication satellites for broadcasting and through them for distance education programmes. Learning by yourself in the home is called “distance education.” Each country is making use of communication satellite for broadcasting nationally and internationally. Broadcasting is being used for social and economic improvements and this is needed in Nigeria, especially in the Idoma land for us to lip frog in the development system. Educational broadcasting plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the people and thereby uplifting of the society.

2.2.3 How to use Satellites Television for Education

There are nations using satellites for Education. Thus the concept of “Teacher in the Sky” came into existence. India as a country has educational system called “EduSat” Agarwal (2011) states that “an Indian Satellite is exclusively devoted to the field of education.” The Indian satellite is used for school, college and higher education programmes. Similarly countries like Britain, Japan and Sri-Lanka have come up with the “University of the Air.” Besides supporting formal education, satellite systems can facilitate dissemination of knowledge to the rural and remote population. Minakshi (2004) asserted that “the success of the Satellite Instructional Experiment (SITE) conducted in India followed by similar experiments conducted in Canada, China, Indonesia etc clearly established the tremendous potential of using satellite TV for educational purposes.” Indonesia has successful used of PALAPA satellite to facilitate education broadcasting. INSAT in India facilitates “EduSat” and AUSSAT in Australia prompted other countries like China, Brazil etc to develop their own satellite based educational system. Nigeria and Idoma in particular could use satellite for educational purposes.

The Asian countries have realized the significance of education and educational broadcasting since they have been confronted with the challenge of national reconstruction and modernization. Education is seen as an instrument of modernization. The most powerful tool to achieve modernization is education based on science and technology and this can be taught via satellite television. The Nigeria youths and even the older people go on to satellite view centres to watch football (live marches) two or three times in a week to get entertained. Similarly, if satellite education programmes that could solve societal problems are broadcast on satellite television in Nigeria, people would definitely watch not only in their homes but also in viewing centres for those that could not afford it at home. This could be a means to an end which is education and national development. Education has to be dispersed amongst the masses, to create awareness and proper implementation of the educational projects. Broadcasting has added a totally new dimension to modern communication by bringing the outside world into the individual home. The potential of broadcast technology can be harnessed for edutainment, Poverty alleviation programs for socioeconomic development and building a strong democracy in Nigeria. Nigerians and Idoma in particular needs to be educated on political participation. Media reforms have allowed the commercialization of media operations and this will help in financing satellite television educational programme in Nigeria.

Agarwal (imbi) says that “China has set up a satellite direct broadcasting experimental platform to transmit Close Circuit Television (CCTV) and local satellite TV programmes.” He further says that these satellites have been used in all aspects of economy, science and technology, culture and national defence and yielded remarkable social and economic returns.” Doordarshan, the National Television service of India devoted to public service broadcasting is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. Satellite television can be used for poverty alleviation by given the necessary education and awareness that could pull the Nigerians from poverty. Satellite television programming should be used in a manner that could promote informal education, as well as formal education.

A separate satellite television channel should be created for developmental broadcasting to ensure that many of the poor and illiterate get education, information, and entertainment. This separate channel could target both rural and urban audiences with programming that is more relevant to their lives. “Policy and decision-makers in broadcasting and education sector should consider that technology has raised the quality of individualized distance instruction and that electronic media have had an impact in a number of areas especially in technologically based distance education programmes (http://knowledge.cta.int). Nigeria broadcast policy should reflect more commitment to public service broadcasting and its role in the socio-economic development of the country. This can be amply (sufficiently) demonstrated by relevant programmes.

Programming should promote and protect the reach cultural heritages in Nigeria and Idoma land in particular since the country has great cultural heritages. Popularization of Nigeria as the “Giant of Africa” can be seen in positive light by creation of more values on education in the aspects of social sciences and technological development. Modern biotechnology opens up a broad range of potential applications in agriculture, industry, medicine, environmental protection and resource conservation. This technology is expected to make a major contribution to solving problems in developing economies. Satellite television uses could bridge the technological and economic gap between rich and poor countries by educating people on science and technology amongst others. The public and specific target groups have to be educated and trained and made aware of various scientific innovations and it is in this context that the electronic media play a major role.

These innovations (advances in technology) should be highlighted by satellite television in their programming by giving due emphasis to science and technology since they are the very basis of the development of a country. Programmes for colleges and higher institutions and the general public should be made innovatively by the programmers to sustain interest and thereby create awareness and bring about attitudinal change amongst the masses. This will lead to the socio-economic development of the country and Idoma land in particular.

The Nigeria Broadcasting Commission should be geared up to face the challenges of illiteracy, superstition, poverty, poor health and hygiene etc, by making polices, which would create educative, informative, scientific programmes on the electronic media (television in this regard). Such education through satellite television could motivate the masses and bringing about attitudinal change. Community viewing centres should be provided and strengthened in various areas. Villagers should be familiarized with these services and this will definitely solve the sheer ignorant as a result of lack of literacy in the country.

2.2.5 The Role of Parents and the Government in Proper Usage of Satellite Television

Satellite television is one of the advancements in technology that has made life meaningful through information, education and entertainment. Nevertheless, improper use of it by teenagers and even adults are major problems. It is therefore imperative to balance the use of satellite television to enhance its advantages on teenagers and adults by downplaying the negative aspects of satellite television. Kombol (2015 p 1) asserts that “satellite television viewing centres are used to advance sporting interests, however they are abused when criminals use these centres as meeting places and hideouts.” It is therefore imperative that for the viewing centres not to be abused, the Nigeria security agencies should have presence in those centres to ensure that criminals do not used them as meeting venues.

Many people who watch live football matches via satellite television viewing centres end up fighting each others. This led to abuse of the use of satellite television but if government comes in, those centres could be useful for awareness creation on peaceful co-existence and other issues as well. “The Nigerian government should utilise the huge gathering of youth at satellite television viewing centres as an opportunity to create awareness on a wide range of issues.”

Furthermore, Kombol (imbi) finds that “the dominant use of satellite television viewing centres to televise football matches leads to neglect of local football teams and this has far reaching implications.” Government could consider those centres to promote local football matches by building its communication satellites to be able to transmit the local football matches as well on satellite television. The step taken so for by the Nigeria Football Federation to promote Nigeria Professional Leagues through live telecast on NTA Sport channel is commendable.

Unemployment is a major problem in Nigeria, government needs to empower the operators of satellite television viewing centres to diversify from only football matches to other businesses in the venue. Kombol (imbi) asserts that “proprietors of these centres should explore the profitability of such centres for other purposes such as music videos as an additional income earner to football.” The Nigeria government could make satellite television more effective by promoting the NollyWood. This will promote Nigeria culture and potentials to the wider world and create employment to the unemployed youth.

The Nigerian government could discourage viewing of some Western countries’ channels that show immoral acts by providing alternative channels. This could be best achieved by building its satellite. China has strict regulation on the cyber space because China has built her communication satellite. Agarwal (2011) says that ‘ The Chinese state is employing more sophisticated controls to counter space changes.’ He further says that “There is a constant state presence through the vigilance of cyber police in monitoring the Internet and its chat rooms, emails, message boards, websites, etc.” There are many online satellite televisions today which promote different interests. Some of their contents are harmful. Without a developed communication satellites, ‘Hate Speech Bill’ cannot be effectively implemented even if it is passed into law. If Nigeria Government builds her effective communication satellite, it would shift from death penalty to technological means to get rid of hate speech.

Parents and guardians have roles to play to enhance proper use of satellite television. They need to caution their children and wards over some channels that show immoral and violent acts as well as bad alien cultures. This could be done by give the children the necessary advice and monitor what they watch on satellite television. The parents and guardians have the ‘Parent lock’ option to lock some channels that are unhealthy for teenager or even themselves as well. When such channels are locked, there is need to lure the children to watch channels that promote Nigeria culture and morality.

2.2.6 Review of Empirical Studies

The debate on the influence of the media is no longer a new phenomenon in the history of media effect study. Ugande (2017) opines that what remains unsettled is what extent is the effect of the media on people.

Herbert Blumber took part in the Panye Fund Studies conducted in 1929 in America. He conducts a research on media effect and reported his findings, which he titled “The Effects of Movies on Children.” The researcher, Herbert Blumber used survey research design method and sampled some teenagers in America and used interview technique to ascertain the effects of movies on children. The studies examined how motion picture affect morals compared with American moral standards. It also looked at whether there was a link between films depicting crime and actual crime and delinquently reported in the society, and how motion pictures affected the behaviour of children. Although the studies did not come up with conclusive proof that motion pictures were actually damaging to the American culture, the results however, concluded that teenagers had been greatly influenced by the movies (Wilson & Wilson, 2001).

The researcher (Herbert Blumber) simply asked teenagers what the remembered about movies they had watched as children. He concluded the study and reported that ‘teenagers have been greatly influenced.’ He recommended that media had powerful effects and called for censorship of some media contents that could “prevent and upset the proper social order.”

The study and the recommendation of Herbert Blumber are important to this study because it established the Powerful Effects Paradigm of the media and recommended censorship. This justifies that television broadcast has powerful effects; it therefore shows that it is imperative to research into the influence of satellite television on Idoma culture. Even though satellite television is relatively difficult to be censored by government, self-censorship by the programme producers and the audience (parents and guardians) can go a long way to ensure that the negative influences of satellite television are managed for efficient and effective use of satellite television.

Similarly, Biagi (2001 pp 269-271) opines that ‘Wilbur Schramm, Jack Lyle and Edwin Parker conducted surveys in ten American cities and they reported that:

Children are exposed to television at the expense of other medium.

At the age 5, children watched television 2 hours every weekday.

At the age of 8, the viewing increased to 3 hours.

From age 3 to 16 children spent more time in front of television set than they spent in school.”

They further say that “Children used television for Fantasy, diversion and instruction. Children who have trouble relationship with their parents were children who were classified as aggressive were more likely to turn in to television for fantasy.”

Children learn faster than adult and whatever they learn as teenagers influences their lives positively or negatively. This implies that television violence or other immoral behaviours could be learnt at teenage and that affect people’s behaviours as an adult. It is therefore imperative that parents should ensure that their children are not exposed to channels that show violence since the children could not distinguish between fantasy and real life.

Further more, Ugande (imbi) notes that National Institute of Mental Health of America compilation and evaluation of the main finding of over 2,500 studies concerning television’s influence on behaviour which had been undertaken 1971 and 1981 noted that the content of violence on television has not ebbed since the 1950s.’ The fact that violence content on television has not reduced stresses the need to assess the influence of satellite television on the Nigeria culture and a focus on the Idoma culture. This is because if there are such influences on the Idoma people, if left unchecked, it could lead to extinction of peaceful and good culture of Idoma people.

More recently, in 2006, there was a study on media effects by Martino, Collins, Elliott, Strachman, Kanouse, & Berry, on “ Exposure to Degrading versus Non-degrading Music Lyrics and Sexual Behaviour among Youth” They conducted a national longitudinal telephone survey of 1,461 adolescents in America. The participants were interviewed at baseline when they were 12 to 17years old, and again 1 and 3 years later. “Multivariate regression analyses was carried out and the results indicated that youths who watched or listened to more degrading sexual content were more likely to subsequently initiate intercourse and to progress to more advanced levels of sexual abuse.” In contrast, exposure to non-degrading sexual content was unrelated to changes in the participants’ sexual behaviour. Therefore, listening or watching music with degrading sexual lyrics is related to advances in a range of sexual activities among adolescents. However this does not seem to be true of all sexual lyrics. He concluded and recommended that “reducing the amount of degrading sexual content in popular music or reducing young people’s exposure to music with this type of content could help delay the onset of sexual behaviour and raping in our society.”

The study is important to the present research because it established that watching and listening to music that shows explicit sexual content has influence on adolescence. Nigerians watch music on satellite television than they do to cultural and traditional music in and outside the media. Hence is it imperative that this previous study set a tone to examine other effect that it may have on people.

Furthermore, an empirical research was also conducted by George-Okoro, T. G. (2008), and he reported his findings, which he titled “The Effects of Movies with Sex Content on Teenage Sexual Attitudes and Values.” The study examines the effects of explicit sexual contents in movies e.g. sexual gestures, postures, porn, etc and how teenagers view these as positive or negative and in what ways these movies affect their attitudes and values about sex. The study design was an experiment that had 74 participants (34 in the control group and 40 in the experimental group) from Iganmode Grammar School, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between movies with sex contents and teenage sexual attitudes and values. Therefore, the study showed that movies with sexual content have an interaction and correlation with teenager’s sexual attitudes and values. He recommended that parents should monitor their children to prevent them from early exposure to porn and other sexual conversations on movies. This study recommendation is useful to this study because it served as base for the recommendation arrived at in the end of this report.

2. 3 Theoretical Framework

In keeping with academic tradition globally, scholars often use models and/or theories in attempt to explain social phenomenon. The main theory used in this research is Cultural Imperialism Theory, others include: Technological Determinism Theory and Social Learning Theory.

2.3.1 Cultural Imperialism Theory

Cultural Imperialism Theory was propounded by Herbert Schiller in 1973 in his book titled “Communication and Cultural Domination”. Cultural Imperialism Theory states that Western nations dominate the media around the world and which in return has powerful effect on Third World countries by imposing on them Western views and therefore destroying their native culture (Schiller 1973 in Ijwo & Omula (2014 p 106). Cultural imperialism according www.enwikipedia.org/wiki/cultural-imped in Ijwo and Omula (2014 p 105) is, “the practice of promoting and imposing culture, usually of politically powerful nations over the less potent society.” This implies that Cultural Imperialism Theory is the influence of the culture of politically developed nations on the less developed nations. Similarly, Ugande (2017 p 49) defines it as “the domination of the cultures of the developing nations by the culture of the West.”

This domination of the culture of the West on the culture of the Third World countries is made possible through communication satellites. Satellite television receives its signal from Telstar from powerful countries and relays to every nook and cranny of the world via decoders connected to satellite dish without minding the effect of such programmes on the cultures of the other countries.

Ijwo and Omula (2014) opine that “the assumptions of Cultural Imperialism Theory include:

  1. Onslaught of information and fares from industrialized and economically influential to the Third World countries.
  2. Imposition of foreign cultures on local culture and or domination of local cultures by the foreign cultures.
  3. Developed countries control the hardware, software and the needed technicians or expertise.”

This indicates that large information and sales from industrialized countries that have the economic capacities to produce in large quantity have influence on the less industrialized countries like Nigeria. The media influence the social-cultural lives of the people; the large movement of information from the industrialized nations imposes the way of life of those countries on the Third World countries (less developed nations). We live in the age of digital technology where the functionality of television broadcasting is aided by hardware (the equipment and devices that make up a television station like computer system, teleprompter, transmitter, TV monitor etc.) The hardware does not work alone; it functions with software (computer programs or applications used in operating Information and Communication Technologies-ICTs.) The developed nations have the intellectual capacity to produce the hardware and the software as well as the ability to operate and maintain them when they are faulty. These of no doubt make the less developed countries’ media to depend on the developed nations and the developed nations take those advantages to sell their culture (way of life) to us.

2.3.2 Technological Determinism Theory

This theory was propounded by Herbert, Marshall McLuhan. Science and technology are widely understood to be the major, if not the only forces which cause social change. This opinion is called technological determinism. According to this view science and technology are autonomous, which means that they develop according to their own internal logic only. Armin (2005 p 1) says “Once new technologies have been invented and are released into the world they have an irresistible impact on the social world.” This implies that history is largely a result of the impact of new technologies because they come with changes.

Ijwo and Omula (2014, p 150) submit that, “the main thrust of the Technological Determinism Theory is that invention in technology invariably causes cultural change and that the way we live is largely the function of the way we process information.” This implies that the invention of satellite television is capable to cause cultural change. Hence, it becomes imperative that the researcher applied it to this research to assess how satellite television has caused cultural change among the Idoma Nation.

2.3.3 Social Learning Theory

This theory is also useful to the research. Social Learning Theory was propounded by Albert Bandura at Stanford University, which specifies that mass media messages give audience members an opportunity to identify with attractive characters that demonstrate behaviour, engage emotions, and allow mental rehearsal and modelling of new behaviour (Babaleye & Ajisafe 2016, p 4). The behaviours of models in the mass media also offer vicarious reinforcement to motivate audience members’ adoption of the behaviour. The theory suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviour of others (Anaeto, et al. (2008) in Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016, p. 4).

Social Learning Theory argues for imitative behaviour and learning from television, such behaviours seen as rewarding and realistic. It uses both imitation and identification to explain how people learn through observation of others in their environment. What this means is that we learn through television how people from other parts of the world live their lives and even how some individuals attain greatness in their chosen careers. Television often gives such people or individuals prominence and put them in the spotlight. It is indispensible that this theory was applied to this study in assessing how the Idoma people learn foreign culture and practice it in place of their original culture.

    1. Summary

Satellite television and culture are two indispensible concepts of this study. Kombol (2015) asserts that “Satellite television is a type of signal transmission where by broadcasting stations on earth send signals into space to satellites, which are orbiting the earth.” According to Nice and Harris (2005) in Kombol (2015) “these satellites then retransmit the signal back to the earth so that people in any part of the world can pick up the signal with appropriate equipment.” Meticulous reviews of previous scholars’ studies have proved that satellite television has advantage and disadvantage.

James et al. (2017) assert that “television is a powerful teacher.” There are many programmes through which children, youth and adult learn. Kombol (2015 p 1) asserts that “satellite television viewing centres are used to advance sporting interests…”

According to (Babaleye & Ajisafe 2016, James et al. (2017) “It is noteworthy that not all messages that the media project, are at all positive.” The emergence of satellite broadcasting tends to exacerbate (aggravate) the problem of cultural imperialism. Schramm (1990 in James et al. (2017)) noted that “satellite threatened to attack the media system of independent countries with a flood of entertainment programming.”

The main theory used in this research is Cultural Imperialism Theory. Cultural Imperialism Theory states that Western nations dominate the media around the world and which in return has powerful effect on Third World countries by imposing on them Western views and therefore destroying their native culture (Schiller 1973) in Ijwo & Omula ( 2014 p 106). Another theory that is also found relevant to this study is Technological Determinism Theory. Ijwo and Omula (2014, p 150) submit that, “the main thrust of the Technological Determinism Theory is that invention in technology invariably causes cultural change and that the way we live is largely the function of the way we process information.” Social Learning Theory is also useful to the research. Social Learning Theory argues for imitative behaviour and learning from television, such behaviours seen as rewarding and realistic.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

Research design is the overall strategy that is used to choose and integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby ensuring that the research problem is effectively addressed. De (2006, p. 1) asserts “Research design constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. He notes that “the research problem determines the type of design to be used, not the other way round!” Research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting, analysing and measuring of the variables specified in the research problem.

3.1.1 Survey Research Design

The study adopts the survey research design method. A survey is any activity that collects information in an organised and methodological manner about characteristics of interest from some or all units of a population using well-defined concepts, methods and procedures, and compiles such information into a useful summary form. Isaac & Michael (1997) in Glasow (2005 p135) opine that Survey research is used “to answer questions that have been raised, to solve problems that have been posed or observed, to assess needs and set goals.

The researcher therefore considered this design (survey research) suitable and used it to describe what exist in the Idoma culture and to what extend (amount) has satellite television content influenced the lifestyle of Idoma people differently from their pattern of life. Kraemer (1999) in Glasow (2005, p. 5) identifies distinguishing characteristics of survey research. “First, survey research is used to quantitatively describe specific aspects of a given population.” He further asserts that “Survey research uses a selected portion of the population from which the findings can later be generalized back to the population.” Pinsonneault and Kraemer (1993) define a survey as a means for gathering information about the characteristics, actions, or opinions of a large group of people. Surveys can also be used to assess needs, evaluate demand, and examine impact (Salant & Dillman, 1994, p 2). Surveys can also elicit information about attitudes that are otherwise difficult to measure using observational techniques (McIntyre, 1999, p. 75 and Glasow (2005, p. 5). The study, therefore, adopted this design (survey research) to examine the influence of satellite television on the Idoma culture

3.2 The Population of the Study

Population of the study is the entire (total) number of people or objects that researcher(s) is/are interested to conduct a research. The population of this study is the Idoma people. Idoma is the name of the ethnic group and also the name of the language they speak; residing at the lower and western areas of Benue State in Nigeria. Other Idoma groups can be found in Cross River, Enugu and Nasarawa states in Nigeria. Idoma population is estimated to 3.5 million people in 2017 National Population estimate (population.gov.ng).

3.3 Sample Size Determination

Sample or sample size is a subset of the units from the entire population is being studied. “The usual goal of such sample is to represent the population.” In this light, “determining sample size, representativeness is the most important consideration and not the size.” A doctor does not need to see all the patients of a particular aliment dead before he knows that, that aliment is deadly, hence, a communication scholar needs not to interview all Idoma people on the influence of satellite television on Idoma culture before he/she makes assertions. This justifies the use of sampling. The sample frame of this study is the Idoma people in Benue State University, Makurdi, which was later generalised back to the entire population (Idoma people).

Therefore, the researcher adopted the Taro Yamane formula to determine the sample size for this study. The Taro Yamane method for sample size calculation was formulated by the statistician, Taro Yamane in 1967 to determine the sample size from the population. The reason for using this formula is because the population under study is above ten thousand. It is the belief of the statistician and other scholars that the formula is useful in determining sample size of a population of such magnitude.

The population under study (Idoma people) is estimated to be three million, five hundred thousand (3, 500,000) people. Below is the mathematical illustration of Taro Yamane method and subsequence calculation of how the sample size for the study emerged:

Where: n= N

1+N(e)2

 

n = sample size

N = total population

e = margin of error which the researcher is ready to allow (0.05 square)

The population of study as stated above is 3, 500,000

Therefore N = 3, 500, 000

1+3, 500, 000 (0.05)2

 

n= 3, 500, 000

1+3,500, 000 (0.0025)

n= 3, 500, 000

1+3,500, 000 x 0.0025

 

 

n= 3,500,000

8751

n =399.9

Approximately = 400

Therefore, the sample size for the study is 400. This sample size represents the entire population under study.

3.4 Sampling Techniques and Procedures

To select the respondents for this study, multistage sampling was used. Firstly, the researcher identified three higher institution of learning where Idoma people from different locations of Idoma land would be available; the choice of using higher institution of learning was because the influence of satellite television is more prominent among the Idoma youths and the higher institution of learning contained Idoma youths and older people from different locations of Idoma land to facilitate the facts that were used for study. The institutions identified were Benue State Polytechnic, Ugbokolo, College of Health Sciences, Otukpo and Benue State University, Makurdi.

Probability sampling was used to choose one of the institutions, which was used as sample frame of the study. In doing that, two research assistants were used. One of the assistants was blind folded while the second assistant wrote the names of the three institutions on three different papers and shuffled (mixed together) the papers in a container and asked the blind folded research assistant to pick one of the papers. The blind folded research assistant picked the paper that Benue State University, Makurdi was written on and BSU was chosen and used as the sample frame for this study.

Secondly, the researcher stratified the Idoma people in Benue State University into ten strata: Ado, Agatu, Apa, Ogbadibo, Ohimini, Okpokwu, and Otukpo local government areas of Benue State, and Cross River, Nasarawa and Enugu areas that are Idoma land and respondents were randomly picked from each of the strata. This ensured that, those different geographical locations of the Idoma land were adequately represented.

Furthermore, purposive sampling was also adopted. Purposive sampling is the type of sampling in which the researcher deliberately selected some respondents considering some factors. The reason for adopting purposive sampling was because the strata have unequal population. Another reason for purposive sampling was to ensure that those that responded to the questionnaire were those that watch satellite television as it was not every Idoma in BSU that watch satellite television. The table below is how the sample frame (Idoma people in BSU) was stratified (divided) and questionnaires allocated among the Idoma people in BSU from the various locations of Idoma land; according to the Idoma population in such location.

Table 3.4: The Stratum of Respondents

Stratum Frequency Percentage (%)
Apa 41 10.35%
Ado 30 7.75 %
Agatu 50 12.62 %
Cross River (area that is Idoma land) 20 5.05 %
Enugu (area that is Idoma land) 20 5.05 %
Nassarawa (area that is Idoma land) 20 5.05 %
Ogbadibo 61 15.25 %
Ohimini 36 9 %
Okpokwu 61 15.25 %
Otukpo 61 15.25 %
Total 400 100 %

Source: Table of strata used in the field survey; March, 2018

The above has shown the strata used in the study. 41 respondents were from Apa Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 10.35 % of the respondents. 30 respondents were from Ado Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 7.75 % of the respondents. 50 respondents were from Agatu Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 12.62 % of the respondents. 20 respondents each were given to Cross River, Enugu and Nassarawa State respectively; these amount to 5.05 % of the respondents respectively.

61 respondents were from Ogbadibo Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 15.25 % of the respondents. 36 respondents were from Ohimini Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 9 % of the respondents. 61 respondents were from Okpokwu Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 15.25 % of the respondents. 61 respondents were from Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State, which also represent 15.25 % of the respondents.

The demography used include: gender, age, education, occupation, location (stratum) and marital status.

3.5 Research Instruments and Administration

The term survey instrument is often used to distinguish the survey tool from the survey research, which is designed to support a study. A set of questionnaire was used and directly administered by the researcher to elicit information from a sample size of Idoma people who were (students, lecturers, etc. in Benue State University, Makurdi.)

A questionnaire (form) is a group or sequence of questions designed to obtain information on a subject from a respondent. Questionnaires play a central role in the data collection process since they have a major impact on data quality and influence which could determine the quality of the research.

Questionnaires can either be paper or computerised format. The study adopted the paper format; this is because the respondents are used to it than the electronic format. The researcher used open-end and close-end questionnaires. According to Thomas (2001) Closed question is one where the possible answers have been defined in advance and so the respondents’ answers would be restricted to pre-coded responses offered.” He also states that “Open-ended question is one which allows the respondents the freedom to give their own answers to a question, rather than forcing them to select one from a limited choice.” Open-ended questions are commonly used in in-depth interviews, but they can also be used in quantitative structured interviews as well.

3.6 Sources of Data Collection

Source is the origin of a particular thing which could be primary or secondary.

Data collection is the process of gathering the required information for each selected unit in the survey. The primary source of the data used in this study were gathered from the Idoma people from the seven local government areas of Idoma extraction in Benue State, and Cross River, Enugu and Nasarawa states, who are students, lecturer etc. in Benue State University, Makurdi.

The secondary source of that data collection include: textbooks, journals articles, theses, dissertations, television broadcast, dictionaries, periodic materials (newspaper, magazine etc), internet (website) and other reference books.

3.7 Method of Data Analysis

Frequency counts and percentages on tables were used to analyze the data gathered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES

4.1 Data Presentation

This chapter deals with the presentation of data that were gathered from the field survey of this study; which were used to answer the research questions as outlined in chapter one of this study. This chapter answered the research questions as well as discussion of findings of this study.

The researcher administered four hundred (400) questionnaires as determined by the sample size in chapter three. However, there were records of four mortality rates as four of the respondents returned the questionnaires unfilled and damaged beyond useable. Therefore, the researcher worked with three hundred and ninety six (396) respondents.

Table One: Gender of Respondents

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 200 50.5%
Female 196 49.5%
Total 396 100%

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table one above has shown that 200 of the respondents were male which represent 50.5 % of the entire respondents in this study while 196 respondent were female, which also represent 49.5 % of the respondents.

Table Two: Age Range of Respondents

Age Range Frequency Percentage (%)
18-20 Years 8 2.02 %
21-30 Years 300 75.75 %
31-40 Years 46 11.61 %
40-50 Years 30 7.57 %
Above 50 years 12 3.02 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table two above has shown that 8 respondents representing 2.02 % of the respondents were within the age of 18 and 20 year. 300 respondents representing 75.75 % of the respondents were within age 21 to 30. Similarly, 46 respondents, which represent 11.61 % of the respondents, were within 31 to 40. 30 respondents which represent 7.57 % entire respondents were within age 40 to 50 while 12 respondents representing 3.02 % are above 50 years.

Table Three: Educational Qualifications of Respondents

Qualifications Frequency Percentage (%)
SSCE/GCE 220 55.56 %
NCE/ND 96 24.24 %
Degree/HND 50 12.64 %
PGD 20 5.05 %
PhD 10 2.52 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table three above has shown that 220 representing 55.56 % of the respondents were Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (SSCE) and General Certificate of Education (GCE) holders. 96 respondents representing 24.24 % of the respondents were National Certificate of Education and National Diploma holders. While 50 respondents, which represents 12.64 % of the respondents were Degree and Higher National Diploma (HND) holders. Similarly, 20 respondents which represent 5.05 of the entire respondents were Post-Graduate Degree (PGD) holder while 10 respondents, which represent 2.52 % were Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) holders.

Table Four: Occupation of Respondents

Occupation Frequency Percentage (%)
Business people 20 5.05 %
Civil Servant 50 12.62 %
Public Servant 26 6.56 %
Student 300 75.75 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

The table four above has shown that 20 respondents representing 5.05 % of the respondents were business people. 50 respondents, which represent 12.62 % were civil servants while 26 respondents were public servant, which represent 6.56 % of the entire respondents. Similarly, 300 respondents, which represent 75.75 of the respondents, were students.

Table Five: The Stratum/Location of Respondents

Stratum Frequency Percentage (%)
Apa 41 10.35 %
Ado 30 7.75 %
Agatu 50 12.62 %
Cross River 20 5.05 %
Enugu 20 5.05 %
Nassarawa 20 5.05 %
Ogbadibo 60 15.15 %
Ohimini 35 8.83 %
Okpokwu 60 15.15 %
Otukpo 60 15.15 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table five above has shown the strata used in the study. 41 respondents were from Apa Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 10.35 % of the respondents. 30 respondents were from Ado Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 7.75 % of the respondents. 50 respondents were from Agatu Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 12.62 % of the respondents.

20 respondents are from Cross River State: area that is Idoma land, which represent 5.05 % of the respondents. 20 respondents are from Enugu State: area that is Idoma land, which also represent 5.05 % of the respondents. 20 respondents are from Nassarawa State: area that is Idoma land, which as well represent 5.05 % of the respondents.

60 respondents were from Ogbadibo Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 15.15 % of the respondents. 35 respondents were from Ohimini Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 8.83 % of the respondents. 60 respondents were from Okpokwu Local Government Area of Benue State, which represent 15.15 % of the respondents. 60 respondents were from Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State, which also represent 15.15 % of the respondents.

Table Six: Marital Status of the Respondents

Marital Status Frequency Percentage (%)
Single 328 82.82 %
Married 68 17.17 %
Divorce 0 0.0 %
Widow/Widower 0 0.0 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table six above contains the marital status of the respondents in this study. 328 respondents, which represent 82.82 % were single (not married) while 68 respondents, which represent 17.17 were married. No divorce, widow and widower responded to the questionnaire copies administered.

Table seven: Respondents that watch satellite television programmes.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly agree 265 66.9%
Agree 131 33.1%
Neutral 0 0%
Disagree 0 0%
Strongly disagree 0 0%
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table seven above has shown the number of respondents who watch satellite television. 265 respondents, which represent 66.9 % strongly, agreed that they watch satellite television programmes. Also, 131 respondents, which represent 33.1 % agree that the watch satellite television. 0 % for neutral, disagrees and strongly disagrees respectively. This implies that all the respondents watch satellite television.

Table Eight: Whether Western satellite television teaches and influences Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma culture.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 184 46.46 %
Agree 188 47.47 %
Neutral 12 3.03 %
Disagree 8 2.02 %
Strongly Disagree 4 1.01 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

The table eight above has shown that 184 respondents, which represent 46.46 % of the entire respondents strongly, agreed that Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. 188 respondents, which represent 47.47 % of the entire respondents, agreed that Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. 12 respondents, which represent 3.03 % of the entire respondents seated on the fence (neutral) to decide if Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values or not.

8 respondents, which represent 2.02 % of the entire respondents disagreed that Western satellite television could teaches Idoma people negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. In other words, according to this 2.02, satellite television has no influence on Idoma cultural values. 4 respondents, which represent 1.01 % of the entire respondents strongly disagreed that Western satellite television could teaches Idoma people negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. In other words, according to this 1.01 %, satellite television has no influence on Idoma cultural values.

Table Nine: Whether Respondent desire and Live the Kind of Lifestyles Portrayed in Western satellite TV Programmes.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 56 14.14 %
Agree 136 34.34 %
Neutral 96 24.24 %
Disagree 68 17.17 %
Strongly Disagree 40 10.10 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

The table nine above has shown that 56 respondents, which represent 14.14 % of the entire respondents strongly, agreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. 136 respondents, which represent 34.34 % of the entire respondents, agreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. 96 respondents did not throw their weight to any side (Neutral) if they desire and live the Western lifestyle shown on satellite television or not.

68 respondents, which represent 17.17 % of the entire respondents disagreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. In other words, they did not live the Western lifestyles shown on Sat TV. 40 respondents, which represent 10.10 % of the entire respondents strongly, disagreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. In other words, they did not live the Western lifestyle shown on Sat TV.

Table Ten: Whether the positive influences of Western satellite television on Idoma culture include: teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care, science and technology.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 192 48.43 %
Agree 172 43.43 %
Neutral 20 5.05 %
Disagree 12 3.03 %
Strongly Disagree 0 0.0 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

The table ten above shown that 192 respondents, which represent 48.43 % of the entire respondents strongly agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology. 172 respondents, which represent 43.43 % of the entire respondents, agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology. 20 respondents, which represent 5.05 % of the entire respondents did not take side (neutral) whether Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology.

12 respondents, which represent 3.03 % of the entire respondents strongly, disagreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology.

Table Eleven: Whether respondent desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 60 15.15 %
Agree 68 17.17 %
Neutral 88 22.22 %
Disagree 128 32.32 %
Strongly Disagree 52 13.13 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table eleven above shown that 60 respondents, which represent 15.15 % of the entire respondents, strongly agreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture. 68 respondents, which represent 17.17 % of the entire respondents, agreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture. 88 respondents, which represent 22.22 % of the entire respondents, remained neutral to comment that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture or not.

128 respondents, which represent 32.32 % of the entire respondents, disagreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture. 52 respondents, which represent 13.13 % of the entire respondents, strongly disagreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture.

Table Twelve: As western marriage ceremonies are shown on satellite TV, the choice of marriage the respondents would go for, if they are left with only one choice.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Church Wedding 216 54.54 %
Idoma Traditional Wedding 172 43.43 %
Court Wedding 8 2.02 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table twelve above shown that 216 respondents, which represent 54.54 % of the entire respondents chose church wedding (white wedding) than Idoma traditional wedding and court wedding. 172 respondents, which represent 43.43 % of the entire respondents, chose Idoma traditional wedding than church wedding and court wedding. While 8 respondents, which represent 2.02 % of the entire respondents chose court wedding than church wedding and Idoma traditional wedding.

Table Thirteen: The language the respondents speak most in their interaction with their fellow Idoma?

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
English Language 236 59.59 %
Idoma Language 156 39.39 %
French Language 4 1.01 %
Hausa Language 0 0.0 %
Total 396 100%

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

The table thirteen above shown that 236 respondents, which represents 59.59 % of the entire respondents speak English Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. 156 respondents, which represent 39.39 % of the entire respondents, speak Idoma Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. While 4 respondents, which represents 1.01 % of the entire respondents speak French Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. No respondent out of the entire respondents speak Hausa Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma.

Table fourteen: Whether Idoma culture can be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 260 65.65 %
Agree 136 34.34 %
Neutral 0 0.0 %
Disagree 0 0.0 %
Strongly Disagree 0 0.0 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table fourteen above shown that 260 respondents, which represent 65.65 % strongly agreed that Idoma culture could be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations. 136 respondents, which represent 34.34 %, agreed that Idoma culture could be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations.

No respondent, remained neutral, disagreed or strongly disagree that Idoma culture could be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations.

Table fifteen: Other way(s) that respondents suggested that could promote Idoma culture through satellite television?

Suggestion Frequency Percentage(%)
Idoma Satellite Television Channel 120 30.30 %
Educational Programmes on Idoma Language, Idoma Delicacies and quiz on Idoma Culture and Tradition on Sat TV 116 29.29 %
Documentaries on Idoma culture 70 17.67 %
Idoma Day Worldwide/Live Telecast of it on satellite Television 48 12.12 %
Edutainment programmes on Idoma Tales, proverb, music and dance on Sat TV 30 7.52 %
No Suggestion 12 3.03 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table fifteen above shown an opened question and the suggestions that respondents made on how Idoma culture could promoted on satellite television. 120 respondents (Idoma people), which represent 30.30 % suggested Idoma satellite television channel. 115 respondents, which represent 29.29 % suggested educational programme on Idoma Language, Idoma delicacies and quiz on Idoma culture and tradition on satellite television. 70 respondents, which represent 17.67 % suggested documentaries on Idoma culture.

Furthermore, 48 respondents, which represent 12.12 % suggested that there should be Idoma Day worldwide and it should be shown live telecast on satellite television. While 30 respondents, which represent 7.52 %, suggested edutainment programmes on Idoma tales, proverb, music and dance on satellite television. 12 respondents did not make any suggestion.

Table Sixteen: Whether respondent prefer Western music and dance shown on satellite Television to Idoma local music and dance.

Option Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree 90 22.72%
Agree 75 18.93%
Neutral 100 25%
Disagree 85 21.46%
Strongly Disagree 46 11.61%
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table sixteen above has shown that 90 respondents, which represent 22.72 % of the respondents strongly agreed that they prefer western music and dance shown on satellite television than the Idoma music. 75 respondents, which represent 18.93% of the respondents agreed that they prefer western music and dance shown on satellite television than the Idoma music and dance.

100 respondents, which represent 25% of the respondents remained neutral, which implies that they have not made a choice of the music and dance they preferred. 85 respondents, which represent 21. 46 % of the respondents disagreed that they prefer western music and dance shown on satellite television to Idoma music and dance. In order words, 21.46 like Idoma music and dance than the western music and dance shown of satellite television. 46 respondents, which represent 11.61 % of the respondents strongly disagreed that they prefer western music and dance shown on satellite television than the Idoma music and dance. In order words, 11.61 like Idoma music and dance than the western music and dance.

Table Seventeen: Whether respondent can tell Idoma folktales/proverbs like Western stories and proverbs shown on satellite television.

Option Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree 75 18.93 %
Agree 60 15.15%
Neutral 147 37.12%
Disagree 64 16.16%
Strongly Disagree 50 12.62%
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table seventeen above has shown that 75 respondents, which represent 18.93 % of the respondents strongly agreed that they cannot tell Idoma folktale/proverbs like Western stories and proverbs shown on satellite television. 60 respondents, which represent 15.15% of the respondents, agreed that they cannot tell Idoma folktale/proverbs like Western stories and proverb shown on satellite television.

147 respondents, which represent 37.12% of the respondents remained neutral, which implies that they have not made a choice of the folktales/proverbs they could tell. 64 respondents, which represent 16.16 % of the respondents, disagreed that they could tell Idoma folktales/proverbs like Western stories/proverbs as shown on satellite television programmes. This implies that they could tell Idoma folktales and proverbs than the western stories and proverbs shown on satellite television. 50 respondents, which represent 12.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed that they could not tell Idoma folktales/proverbs like Western stories/proverbs as shown on satellite television programmes. This implies that they could tell Idoma folktales and proverbs than the western stories and proverbs shown on satellite television.

Table Eighteen: Whether respondent agrees that Idoma method of animal husbandry could be projected on Satellite television to be emulated by other tribes and nations worldwide.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 150 37.87%
Agree 170 42.92%
Neutral 76 19.19%
Disagree 0 0 %
Strongly Disagree 0 0 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table eighteen above has shown that 150 respondents, which represent 37.87 % of the respondents strongly agreed that Idoma method of animal husbandry could be projected on Satellite television to be emulated by other tribes and nations worldwide. 170 respondents, which represent 42.92% of the respondents, agreed that Idoma method of animal husbandry could be projected on Satellite television to be emulated by other tribes and nations worldwide.

76 respondents, which represent 19.19% of the respondents, remained neutral; this implies that, they did not agree or disagreed, that Idoma method of animal husbandry could be projected on Satellite television to be emulated by other tribes and nations worldwide. No respondent disagreed or strongly disagreed, that Idoma method of animal husbandry could be projected on Satellite television to be emulated by other tribes and nations worldwide.

Table Nineteen: Whether respondent agrees that Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 237 59.84%
Agree 149 37.81%
Neutral 0 0 %
Disagree 0 0 %
Strongly Disagree 0 0 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table nineteen above has shown 237 respondents, which represent 59.84, strongly agreed that Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television on Idoma culture. 149 respondents, which represent 37.81%, agreed that Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television on Idoma culture. No respondent remained neutral, disagreed or strongly disagreed, that Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television on Idoma culture.

Table Twenty: Whether respondent prefers marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief.

Option Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 27 6.18%
Agree 13 3.28%
Neutral 300 75.75 %
Disagree 30 7.75 %
Strongly Disagree 26 6.56 %
Total 396 100 %

Source: Field Survey; March, 2018

Table twenty has shown that 27 respondent, which represent 6.18% strongly agreed that they prefer marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief. 13 respondents, which represent 3.28%, agreed that they prefer marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief.

300 respondents, which represent 75.75% respondents, took no side whether they prefer marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief. In order words, the partially agreed and same time partially disagreed that they prefer marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief.

30 respondents, which represent 7.75% strongly disagreed that they preferred marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief. 26 respondents, which represent 6.56% strongly agreed that they prefer marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief.

4.3 Answering of Research Questions

The data presented in the tables: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; which were devoted to the demographic details of the respondents proved that the respondents were qualified for the study in terms of gender, age, marital status, location, education and occupation. The data presented above were gathered from the representative of all parts of Idoma land as shown in table five above. Therefore they represent the entire population of the study (Idoma people). Hence, generalization would be made in answering the research questions posed earlier in chapter one of this study.

1. What are the influences of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma?

The tables: seven, eight and nine (7, 8 and 9) have answered the research question number one, which was earlier posed on chapter one of this study. Table seven indicated that 100 % of the respondents watched satellite television and that implies that the evaluation of the influence of satellite television on Idoma culture was gathered from the people who are suitable to respond to the research questionnaire. The table seven above has shown that 184 respondents, which represent 46.46 % of the entire respondents strongly-agreed that Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. 188 respondents, which represent 47.47 % of the entire respondents, agreed that Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. These imply that satellite television has great influence on Idoma people, which are positive or negative on the cultural life of Idoma people.

12 respondents, which represent 3.03 % of the entire respondents seated on the fence (neutral) to decide if Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values or not. This implies that they are yet to ascertain if there was influence of satellite television: being positive or negative on the lives of Idoma people.

8 respondents, which represent 2.02 % of the entire respondents disagreed that Western satellite television could teaches Idoma people negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. In other words, according to this 2.02, satellite television has no influence on Idoma cultural values. 4 respondents, which represent 1.01 % of the entire respondents strongly disagreed that Western satellite television could teaches Idoma people negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma cultural values. In other words, according to this 1.01 %, satellite television has no influence on Idoma cultural values.

The table eight above has shown that 56 respondents, which represent 14.14 % of the entire respondents strongly, agreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. 136 respondents, which represent 34.34 % of the entire respondents, agreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. 96 respondents did not throw their weight to any side (Neutral) if they desire and live the Western lifestyle shown on satellite television or not.

68 respondents, which represent 17.17 % of the entire respondents disagreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. In other words, they did not live the Western lifestyle shown on Sat TV. 40 respondents, which represent 10.10 % of the entire respondents strongly-disagreed that they desire and live the lifestyles portrayed in Western satellite television. In other words, they did not live the Western lifestyle shown on Sat TV.

From the above analyses table 7 and 8, majority of Idoma people have asserted that satellite television has negative influences (violence, indecent dressing, relegation of Idoma Language etc) as well as positive influences (healthy living, human right and the use of technologies etc.) as they agreed that they desire and live the lifestyles shown on satellite television which are different from Idoma culture.

2. What are the positive and negative influences of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma?

The tables: nine and ten data presented from the study’s field survey above have answered the research question two, which was posed earlier in chapter one .The table nine above shown that 192 respondents, which represent 48.43 % of the entire respondents strongly agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology. 172 respondents, which represent 43.43 % of the entire respondents, agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology.

20 respondents, which represent 5.05 % of the entire respondents did not take side (neutral) whether or not Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology. 12 respondents, which represent 3.03 % of the entire respondents strongly, disagreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology.

From the foregoing, it could be generalized that majority of Idoma people agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology.

Furthermore, table ten above shown that 60 respondents, which represent 15.15 % of the entire respondents, strongly-agreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture. 68 respondents, which represent 7.17 % of the entire respondents, strongly agreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture. 88 respondents, which represent 22.22 % of the entire respondents, remained neutral to comment that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture or not.

128 respondents, which represent 32.32 % of the entire respondents, disagreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture. 52 respondents, which represent 13.13 % of the entire respondents, strongly disagreed that they desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture.

From the above analyses, majority of Idoma people prefer to dress, greet and resolve their differences in accordance with the Idoma culture than the culture the watch on satellite television, which shown settlement of cases in court and other violence means.

  1. What are the particular cultural value(s) of Idoma that is (are) influenced by satellite television?

The tables: eleven and twelve, sixteen and seventeen data presented in the data presentation segment above have answer the research question three, which was posed in chapter one of this report. Table eleven above shown that 216 respondents, which represent 54.54 % of the entire respondents chose church wedding (white wedding) more shown on satellite television than Idoma traditional wedding and court wedding. 172 respondents, which represent 43.43 % of the entire respondents, chose Idoma traditional wedding than church wedding and court wedding shown on satellite television and other means of international means of communication. While 8 respondents, which represent 2.02 % of the entire respondents chose court wedding than church wedding and Idoma traditional wedding as shown on satellite television. This implies that majority of the Idoma people prefer church wedding, which is Western lifestyle to Idoma traditional marriage.

The table twelve above shown that 236 respondents, which represents 59.59 % of the entire respondents speak English Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. 156 respondents, which represent 39.39 % of the entire respondents, speak Idoma Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. While 4 respondents, which represents 1.01 % of the entire respondents speak French Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. No respondent out of the entire respondents speak Hausa Language in most of their interaction with their fellow Idoma. Table sixteen, majority of the Idoma people prefer western music and dance to Idoma music. From the data presented above on table seventeen, majority of the Idoma people cannot tell Idoma folktales/proverbs like Western stories and proverbs shown on satellite television. What this mean is that majority of Idoma cannot say Idoma folktales and proverbs, which teach people many things about Idoma morals but they could tell all the storylines of the foreign movies, Western wise sayings and other stories in form of movies or tales.

From the fact analyzed above, majority of Idoma people mostly speak English Language in their interaction with each other. This implies that relegation of Idoma Language is one of the negative influences of satellite television on Idoma culture. In addition, the younger generation sing and dance western music that they watch on Sat TV than Idoma local music and dance. Similarly, they believe the philosophical and wise sayings of the Western philosophers they watch of satellite television than the Idoma folktales and proverbs.

4. What are the ways satellite television can be used to promote Idoma cultural values?

The tables: thirteen, fourteen, nineteen and twenty data presented from the field survey of this study above have answered the research question four of the research question earlier posed in chapter one of this report. Table thirteen above shown that 260 respondents, which represent 65.65 % strongly agreed that Idoma culture could be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations. 136 respondents, which represent 34.34 % agreed that Idoma culture could be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations.

No respondent, remained neutral, disagreed or strongly disagree that Idoma culture could be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations

Table fourteen above shown and opened question and the suggestions that respondents made on how Idoma culture could be promoted on satellite television. 120 respondents (Idoma people), which represent 30.30 % suggested Idoma satellite television channel. 115 respondents, which represent 29.29 % suggested educational programme on Idoma Language, Idoma delicacies and quiz on Idoma culture and tradition on satellite television. 70 respondents, which represent 17.67 % suggested documentaries on Idoma culture.

Furthermore, 48 respondents, which represent 12.12 % suggested that there should be Idoma Day worldwide and it live telecast on satellite television. While 30 respondents, which represent 7.52 %, suggested edutainment programmes on Idoma tales, proverb, music and dance on satellite television. 12 respondents did not make any suggestion. The analysis implies that Idoma people have several options to promote their cultural values. The data presented on table nineteen above has shown 237 respondents, which represent 59.84, strongly agreed that Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television on Idoma culture. 149 respondents, which represent 37.81%, agreed that Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television on Idoma culture. This implies that 100% of Idoma people believe that the culture of hard-working and discipline they have could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television on Idoma culture. It was earlier discussed in chapter two of this study that satellite television cause laziness and wastage but the hard-working culture of Idoma people could discourage being lazy as result of satellite television programmes.

4.4 Discussion of Findings

This section of the study is devoted to discussion of the major findings arrived at from answering of research questions, which were based on the research objectives of the study.

In accordance with the objective of the study to evaluate the influence of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma, the data analyses on table 7, 8 and 9 have shown that majority of Idoma people have agreed that they watched satellite television and it has both negative and positive influences on the audience. This study conforms to Herbert Blumber empirical study: the Panye Fund Studies conducted in 1929 in America; which he conducted a research on media effect and reported his findings, which he titled The Effects of Movies on Children” and established the Powerful Effect Paradigm of the media. In order words, he established that media is very powerful to influence people. This findings also conform to theoretical postulation of Social Learning Theory which postulates that people imitate behaviour and learning from television.

This calls for parents and guardians to utilize some measures that could mitigate the negative influences and take the advantage of the positive influences as provided by the researcher in chapter two of this study under the sub-headings. Doing that would promote positive influences: healthy living, human right and the use of technologies, information, entertainment, etc. It has been established by scholars in the field of communication as well as anthropology that culture is learnt not inherited. Nwegbu et al. (2011 p. 34) assert that “culture is learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or other means of communication flow from one generation to another.”This underscores the need to guide the young minds and also the adult to know what to take from satellite television into their personal lives.

In accordance with the objective of the study to assess the positive and negative influences of satellite television on the cultural values of Idoma people, the table ten of the field survey has shown that 192 respondents, which represent 48.43 % of the entire respondents strongly agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology. 172 respondents, which represent 43.43 % of the entire respondents, agreed that Western satellite television has positive influence on Idoma culture in teaching the Idoma about health, human right, love and care as well as science and technology. While the negative influence also include: preference of Western music, dance, marriage and language shown of satellite television to Idoma music, dance, marriage and language etc.

In accordance with the objective of the study to identify the particular cultural value(s) of Idoma that is (are) influenced by Satellite television, the research has shown that majority of Idoma people desire and live the lifestyles shown on satellite television, which are different from Idoma culture. Idoma people need to intensify effort to make Idoma traditional marriage more relevant to the Idoma Nation than the white wedding. This is because from the analyses of the data collected for this study, 54.54 percent of Idoma people, which represent the majority of the Idoma people prefer church wedding, which is Western lifestyle they watch on Sat TV to Idoma culture. Many younger generations give attention to church wedding than the Idoma tradition wedding. These findings conform to the Cultural Imperialism Theory propounded by Herbert Schiller in 1973, which states that there is imposition of foreign cultures on local culture and or domination of local cultures developing countries by the foreign cultures of the developed countries.

Another alarming concerned found out in this research is that, 59.59 percent of Idoma people mostly speak English Language in their interaction with their fellow Idoma people. This implies that relegation of Idoma Language is one of the influences of satellite television on Idoma culture. This finding conform to Nwegbu et al. (2011 p. 34) when they assert that “culture is learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or other means of communication flow from one generation to another.” Similarly, it also conform to Babaleye & Ajisafe (2016, p 41) assertion that the way Nigerians speak English and abandon their mother tongues is embarrassing.” The implication of this development is that Idoma language is heading for extinction in the nearest future if nothing is done to encourage interaction in Idoma language among Idoma people as “culture is learnt not inherited.”

In accordance with the objective of the study to examine how satellite television can be used to promote Idoma cultural values, the findings of this study has revealed that Idoma Language can be preserved for posterity (future generation). This is achievable as shown in table 14, 15, 19 and 20 of the data presentation as gathered in the field survey of this study. The data presentation and data analyses imply that Idoma people have several options to promote their cultural values. These include: production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations. Others include Idoma satellite television channel, educational programme on Idoma language, Idoma delicacies and quiz on Idoma culture and tradition on Sat TV, documentaries, Idoma Day celebration worldwide/live Telecast of it on satellite Television, edutainment programmes on Idoma tales, proverbs, music and dance on Sat TV.

Idoma Nation needs to take advantage of the media, satellite television in particular to enhance the development of Idoma land by establishing Idoma satellite television channel. This will indeed expose the potentials and investment opportunity; culture and tradition of Idoma Nations to the world. It will teach the Idoma people home and abroad the Idoma culture and as well preserve them.

Furthermore, from the data analyses, majority of Idoma people prefer to dress, greet and resolve their differences in accordance with the Idoma culture than the Western culture they watch on satellite television, which always shows settlement in court. This is evidence on table eleven of the field survey of this study as presented and analyzed in this chapter. This implies that they have culture, which they could as well promote on satellite television instead of relegating their culture to the background.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of Findings

The findings from this study have revealed that there are significant influences of satellite television on Nigerian culture with a particular emphasis on Idoma culture. The majority of the Idoma people agreed that they desire and live the lifestyles that they are frequently expose to on satellite television programmes, and they shaping their social behaviours. The finding also revealed that the influence of satellite television programmes on the Idoma culture could be negative or positive depending on the individual and the kind of programmes to which they are exposed.

It has as well been revealed that majority of Idoma people prefer Western music and dance shown satellite television than the Idoma local music and dance. It as well revealed that the majority of Idoma people admitted that they speak foreign languages in interactions with their fellow Idoma than they speak Idoma language. They also agreed that they prefer white wedding as shown on satellite television to Idoma traditional marriage. These imply that Western television programmes shown on Nigerian television screens and other foreign channels portraying Western modern lifestyles influence the Idoma cultural lifestyles

However, some of them declined that it was the ideal lifestyle which they would like to emulate, especially the area greeting, dressing and conflict resolution mechanism. It divulges that satellite television teaches the Idoma people about health, love and care, science and technology.

The finding has also established a high hope for the Idoma Nation to preserve their culture and tradition through the establishment of Idoma satellite television channel through which Idoma culture and tradition would be enhanced worldwide.

5.2 Conclusion

It is abundantly clear from all indications in this research that satellite television holds a great fortress in human and material resource developments and its advantages and disadvantage depends on how the users use it. Idoma people could take the advantage of satellite television to promote Idoma culture instead of allowing it (Sat TV) to relegate their cultural values. This is achievable through Idoma satellite television channel and most especially parents and guardians ability to guide the younger generation from exposure to negative programmes on satellite television.

5.3 Recommendations

The recommendations of this study emanated from the result or evidence from the findings of this study and other empirical studies reviewed in this study.

The Need for Self-censorship on viewing of Satellite Television Programmes

It is a well known and established fact that satellite television has both positive and negative influence on the viewers; depending on the type of programmes they are exposed. It is our recommendation that individuals, parents and guardians should control themselves, their children and wards from watching satellite television programmes that expose them to negative lifestyles while they could avail themselves with channels and programmes that add positive values to their lives. This is possibly done by using the parent lock out option on their devices.

The Need to Establish Idoma Satellite Television Channel

The Idoma nation needs to establish her satellite television to educate Idoma people about Idoma culture and tradition; to enhance preservation of Idoma culture and development of Idoma land. Satellite television is a medium that gives voice to both the majority and marginalized societies. Establishing of Idoma satellite television channel will give voice to Idoma people, economically, politically as well as upholding the Idoma cultural values.

The Idoma Nation is blessed with human and natural resources, which could be used to develop Idoma land but today, Idoma Nation is backward in development and opportunity. Establishing Idoma satellite television could turn around the fortunes of Idoma people. The Igbo has ISI MAIDO, NTA IGBO channel etc, Yoruba has Orisun, ST Yoruba, AWA TV etc. The Hausa has DITV, NTA Hausa etc. They were founded to projects the interest of the ethnic groups in Nigeria. These have enriched their culture and economic developments. It is therefore imperative that Idoma could emulate them and avail themselves to the prowess and fortress of satellite television for their development.

The Need to Promote Idoma Language

This study also recommends urgent call on parents as well as every reasonable Idoma to speak and interact with his or her fellow Idoma in Idoma language. There is high decline in the usage of Idoma Language among the Idoma people. Majority of the Idoma people speak English language to their fellow Idoma people. This is not unconnected to the inability to speak Idoma language as mother tongue. Idoma parents are not doing good enough to teach their children the Idoma Language. Many Idoma youths think that speaking English language and Pidgin English to their fellow Idoma in the expense of Idoma language are ways to show their level of civilization and intelligence. Ideally, it is not and such should be discouraged. Every Idoma child home and abroad should step up his or her effort to speak Idoma language in interaction with his/her fellow Idoma people.

The unnecessary imitation and originality caricatures in the dichotomy of dialects (“alala and agbsee”) among the Idoma people must be stopped! Because they discourage the usage of the Idoma language among the Idoma people. Each Idoma person should be given an environment conducive to speak the Idoma dialect he/she could speak without the annoying and unwanted caricature as a result of the disparities in the dialects. Idoma alphabet should be taught to ensure that present generation and posterity could not only speak but also write in Idoma language.

The Need to have Idoma Day

This study also recommends that communication scholars and historians as well as traditional rulers should enlighten Idoma people on the need to have Idoma Day worldwide, as well as given information about happening in Idoma land in the past and present. Many majority and minority ethnic groups in Nigeria have special days set aside to celebrate themselves and discuss their progress and challenges nationwide. Idoma has no special Idoma Day nationwide; it is the suggestion of 12.12 percent of Idoma people through this study to found Idoma Day to promote unity among the Idoma people. This Idoma Day has been in mini practice among the university students, especially in Benue State University, Makurdi and it has encouraged unity and projection of Idoma culture among them. This should be encouraged in a larger scale (Idoma worldwide).

The Need to Support Idoma Filmmakers, Artists and Artistes

It is also our recommendation that Idoma filmmakers, artists and artistes should be supported by illustrious sons and daughters of Idoma Nation to enhance production of Idoma films, exhibitions and songs; especially documentaries as these would bring back the good culture and tradition of Idoma people that are heading for extinction. Many people get to know about Igbo and Yoruba culture today not only because they may be Igbo but because they are projected and preserved on several films. It is of no doubt that production of Igbo films has created jobs for the Igbo people. Production of Idoma films could as well provide jobs for Idoma people.

Some Idoma actors and actresses as well as others in the filmmaking industry have step up in production of Idoma films. Such should be encouraged by the illustrious Idoma people. Filmmaking is capital intensive and could not be produce in a large scale without strong financial backing. We therefore, call on the Idoma people to support the production of Idoma film financially, ideally and politically.

The Need to Promote Idoma Music and Dance

We recommend urgent promotion of Idoma music and dance. This is because evidence from the field survey of this study showed that 41.65 % of Idoma people prefer Western music and dance shown on satellite television to the Idoma local music. 25% of the Idoma remained neutral while only 33.35 like Idoma music and dance than the Western music and dance. It is imperative that if nothing is done to encourage Idoma music and dance, it will be relegated completely.

The Idoma artistes should endeavour to sing in Idoma language and Idoma son and daughter should dance to the tone of Idoma music. Cultural dancers groups should be encourage in schools and traditional occasions. When these recommendations are upheld to, the future is brighter for the Idoma Nation.

Bibliographies

African Language Resource Center “The Idoma People.” Accessed from

http://www.idoma.info/tradition.phpDecember15,2017.

Anaeto, S. G., Onabanjo, S. O., & Osifeso, B. J. (2008) Models and theories of

Communication. Maryland: African Renaissance Books Incorporated.

Armin D. (2005) Technological Determinism in Media Art. A dissertation submitted in

Partial fulfilment of the requirements of Sussex University for the degree of MA

Interactive Digital Media.

Babaleye, S. O. & Ajisafe, I. O. (2016) Western Television Programmes and the African

Cultural Identity of Nigerian Youths. International Journal of Media, Journalism

and Mass Communications (IJMJMC), 2, 40-47 doi.org/10.20431/2454-

9479.0202010

Baran, J. S. (2009) Introduction to mass communication: media literacy and culture. New

York: Mc Graw Hill.

Baran, J. S. & Davis, K. D. (2003) Mass communication theory: foundations, ferment, and

future. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Bandura A. (1986) Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs: NJ.

Prentice Hall.

Boyd-Barrett O. (1979) Media Imperialism: Towards an International Framework for the

Analysis of Media System In curran, J. Gurevitch, M. and Woollcott, J. (eds)

Mass Communication and Society. London: Arnold PP. 50-67.

Christopher K. (2012) The Birth of Satellite TV, 50 Years. Access 15 August, 2016 from http/www.history.com/news/the-birth-of-satellite-tv-50-years/print

China Attaches Importance to Satellite Application Technology. Accessed February

26 th, 2018 from http://www.gisdevelopment.net/regional/china/satellite.htm

Canadian Evaluation Association (1996) Recent Advances in Questionnaire design for

Program Evaluation: Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 11, 1, 73-94.

Dominick, R. J. (2005). The dynamics of mass communication: media in the digital age

(8thed.). New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Duru Ford L. (2002) The Macdonization of Hongkong Global Policy Forum. Radio

Northerland.

Edward M. (2009) What is the Difference Between Cable and Satellite TV?

Accessed from https://books.google.ng>books , 17 December, 2017

Galtung J. (1991) A Structural Theory of Imperialism. Journal of Peace 8, 2, 91-117

George-Okoro, T. G. (2008). The effects of movies with sex content on teenage sexual

attitudes and values. Unpublished undergraduate thesis of the Department of

Human Resource Development (Psychology), College of Development

Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State.

Gerbner (1977) Mass Media Policies in Changing Cultures. New York: John Willey

Gidden, A. (2000) Sociology. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

http://knowledge.cta.int/en/Dossiers/S-T-Issues-inPerspective/Biotechnology-Biosafety/Articles/BiotechnologyRelevance-forCaribbean-Agriculture

Idoma Carnival 2017 accessed 13 December, 2017 from www.Idomacarnival.com

Ijwo A. O. & Omula E. (2014) More than Theories of Mass Communication. Makurdi: SAP

Publishing House.

James, A. J., Daniel C. A. & Nnamdie U. K. (2017) Influence of Foreign Television

Programmes on the Westernisation of Nigerian Youths: International Journal of

International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, 24-39

Jeffrey W. L. (2011) Power, Influence and Diversity in Organisations. American Academy of

Political and Social Science Journal 83: 1362-77

Jekayinfa, A. (2002) Competence in the Language of Instruction as a Predictor of

Performance in Secondary School History. Ilorin Journal, 5, 6, 41-43

John P. G. (1997) Direct Satellite Television Broadcasting. Madrid Polytechnic University:

Madrid, Spain

Joyce, G. (2008) Television Influence on Social Reality. Newbury Park CA Sage.

Key resource Publications.” Access from www.statcan.gc.ca on February 10, 2018

Kluckhohn, C. (1988) Culture: A Critical Review of Concept and Definitions. New York:

Holden Publishers.

Kombol, M. A. (2015) Nigeria Mass Media in this Digital Age, (2nd ed). Makurdi: MTG City

Services.

Martino, C. S., Collins, L. R., Elliott, N. M., Strachman A., Kanouse E. &Berry, H.S(2006)

Exposure to degrading versus non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behaviour

among youth. Pediatrics, 118, 2, 430-441(doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0131).

McKee B. (2009) Negative influences of Media on the Society. Retrieved June 5, 2010, from

http://www.isulongseophil.net/articles/negative-influernces-of-media-on- hesociety.html

Minakshi D. (2004) EDUSAT– the Indian satellite for education, Current Science. 87, 8

Moser, C.A. and Kalton G. (1971). Survey Methods in Social Investigation. Heinemann

Educational Books Limited, London.

Muncie J. (2004). Youth and crime (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications Inc.

Ndubis F. (2017 June 22) “Nigeria Quest for Digital Switch-over.” Accessed from

www.thisdaylive.com 22 nd August, 2017

Nwegbu, M.U., Eze, C. C. & Asogwa, E. B. (2011) Globalization of Cultural Heritage: Issues, Impacts, and Inevitable Challenges for Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal): University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Obiora, A.L. (2002) Feminism, Globalization and Culture. Beijing: Mion Press

Okpeh, O.O & Ugbegili, S. I. (2013) Themes on Nigeria History, People and Cultures.

Makurdi: Vast Publisher.

Olaosebikan, W.A. (1987) Cultural and Creative Arts – A Source Book for Teachers.

Ibadan: Evans Brothers Nig. Publishers

Onabajo F. (2005) Promoting Indigenous Culture and Community Life in Nigeria through

the Mass Media. Journal of Communication 3, 2, 93-98

Idoma Population.” Accessed from population.gov.ng. December 18, 2017

Schiller H. J. (1973) Communication and Cultural Domination. White Plains, NY:

International Arts and Sciences Press.

Schiller, H. (1969) Mass Communication and American Empire. New York:

Sparks, C. (2007) Globalization, Development and the Mass Media. London: Sage

Srebeny, A. (2000) The Many Cultural Faces of Imperialism. In Golding, P. and Harris, P.

(eds) Beyond Cultural Imperialism. London: Sage 106-115

Statistics Canada (1998) Statistics Canada Quality Guidelines. Third Edition. 12-539-X1E

The Number of Pay TV Subscribers in Nigeria. Access on December 15, 2017 from

www.statista.com>Technology&Telecommunication>Consumer>Electronics

Thomas, F. B. (2001) Information Systems Services Guide to the Design of Questionnaires.

University of Leeds.

Tunstall, J. (1977) The Media and American: Anglo- American Media in the World. London.

Ugande G. B. (2017) Issues in Broadcasting (2ned). Makurdi: Vast Publishers.

Vanguard Newspaper March 7, 2016 “Nigerian stabs another to death over Messi or

Ronaldo in India” Accessed December 30, 2017 from Vanguard.com

Story.com/psychoticc184/satellite-television, accessed December 24, 2017

Vivian J. (2009) The media of mass communication (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

What is Satellite Television? Access 22 nd August, 2017 from

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki-satellite-television

Wilson, R. J. & Wilson, R. S. (2001). Mass media, mass culture: an introduction (5th ed.). New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Appendix 2

Questionnaire

Instruction: Please endeavour to complete the questionnaire by ticking the answer of your choice from the options provided or supply the information required where necessary. Please note that the information is used only for research purpose. Therefore be sincerer in your responses.

SECTION A: Personal Information/Data

  1. What is your gender?
  1. Male
  2. Female
  1. What Age Range do you belong?
  1. 18-20yrs
  2. 21-30yrs
  3. 31-40yrs
  4. 41-50yrs
  5. Above 50yrs
  1. What part of Idoma land are you from?
  1. Apa
  2. Ado
  3. Agatu
  4. Cross Rivers
  5. Enugu
  6. Nassarawa
  7. Ogbadibo
  8. Ohimini
  9. Okpokwu
  10. Otukpo
  1. What is your highest education obtained?
    1. SSCE/GCE
    2. NCE/ND

C. Degree/HND

d. PGD

e. PhD

5. What is your occupation?

  1. Business
  2. Civil servant
  3. Public servant
  4. student
  5. others
  1. What is your marital status?
  1. Single
  2. Married
  3. Divorced
  4. Widow or widower

SECTION B: Questions on the Influence of Satellite Television on Nigerian Culture: An Evaluation of Idoma Culture: Base on objectives, research questions and the scope of the study.

  1. You watch satellite television programmes.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

  1. Western satellite television teaches Idoma people both negative and positive Western lifestyles that are different from Idoma culture.
  1. Strongly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly disagree
  1. Do you desire and Live the Kind of Lifestyles Portrayed in Western satellite TV Programmes?

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e Strongly disagree

  1. The positive influences of Western satellite television on Idoma culture are that it teaches the Idoma about health, human right, love and care, science and technology.

a. Strongly agreed

b. Agreed.

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

11. Do you desire and prefer white mode of greeting, conflict resolution mechanism, mode

of dressing as shown on satellite TV to Idoma culture.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

12. As western marriage ceremonies are shown on satellite TV, if you are to choose only one

marriage rite, which of the following would you go for?

a. Church wedding b. Idoma traditional wedding c. court wedding

  1. Sincerely, what language do you speak most in your interaction with your fellow Idoma?

English Language b. Idoma Language c. French d. Hausa

  1. Idoma culture can be promoted worldwide on satellite TV through production of Idoma films, Idoma cultural carnival, international marriages, advertising and public relations.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

  1. What other way(s) would you suggest that could promote Idoma culture through satellite TV?

.

.

  1. You prefer Western music and dance shown on satellite Television to Idoma music and dance.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

  1. You cannot tell Idoma folktales/proverbs like Western story and proverb shown on satellite television.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

18. Idoma method of animal husbandry could be projected on Satellite television to be emulated by other tribes and nations worldwide?

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

  1. Idoma culture of discipline/hard-working could help in reducing the negative influence of satellite television.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

  1. You prefer marriage infidelity in the Western countries shown on satellite television to Idoma absolute forbidden of infidelity, especially because of the “alekwu” belief.

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Neutral

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *